Age of Empires Series Wiki

Hand cavalry that sacrifices hitpoints for attack.
—In-game description

The Uhlan is a melee heavy cavalry unit in Age of Empires III that is unique to the Germans, which replaces the Hussar, and can be trained at the Stable, Fort, and Galleon. It has higher attack but lower hit points than Hussars.

Uhlans are also available to John Black's Mercenaries in the Act II: Ice campaign, replacing Hussars.


Whereas the Hussar has hit points and the Cossack (a unique Russian unit) has cost-effectiveness on their side, the Uhlan has a much higher attack than all other hand cavalry (excluding mercenaries).

From the Commerce Age, Uhlans are received from the Home City with every shipment, including unit upgrades. The only exception to this are any Exploration Age, TEAM, Uhlan and mercenary shipments; the latter two have additional units that other civilizations (e.g. German Hire Black Riders card ships nine Black Riders instead of other civilizations' seven). However, the Germans require 10% more experience points to reach the next shipment to balance this.

Uses and counters[]

Uhlans are like Hackapells; cavalry with low hit points but deal massive damage in return. Uhlans should avoid fighting heavy infantry and ranged cavalry, which have bonus damage against them (including Musketeers, who deal bonus damage against them in melee), as they will be easily destroyed in battle if they attack them without any support.

The high damage of the Uhlan, in addition to being a cavalry unit, allows players to use both their speed and damage to flank enemy artillery, which easily destroys the player's infantry and has very high resistance to ranged attacks. Artillery will have reduced damage against cavalry, but the low hitpoints of the Uhlan makes them unable to withstand 2-3 shots from an Imperial Field Gun. The high damage is also useful for raiding, as it takes a fully upgraded Imperial Czapka 2-3 hits to take down an unupgraded settler, although they should not attempt to do this if defensive measures have been put in place by the opponent.


Age Upgrade Cost Effect
Age III tech tree aoe3.png
Veteran cavalry.png Veteran Uhlans 200 wood,
200 coin
Upgrades Uhlans to Veteran (+20% hit points and attack)
Age IV tech tree aoe 3.png
Guard cavalry.png Czapka Uhlans 1,000 wood,
1,000 coin
Upgrades Uhlans to Czapka Uhlans (+40% hit points and attack); requires Veteran Uhlans
Imperial Age
Imperial cavalry.png Imperial Czapka 1,500 wood,
1,500 coin
Upgrades Czapka Uhlans to Imperial Czapka (+50% hit points and attack); requires Czapka Uhlans

Civilization differences[]

  • John Black's Mercenaries have the Guard (+30% hit points and attack, and costs 600 wood and 600 coin) upgrade for Uhlans instead of the Royal Guard upgrade, and cannot upgrade them to the Imperial level.
  • The Chinese can get Uhlans by allying with the Germans at the Consulate (requires a level 40 Home City) which provides the German Brigade that includes 19 Uhlans (named Czapaka[sic] Uhlan). These Uhlans start with +10% hit points and attack than their regular counterpart, and are automatically upgraded in every Age starting in the Fortress Age (see here for the exact values).
  • The United States can also acquire Uhlans through the "Pulaski's Legion" Home City Card, which ships 12 Czapka Uhlans and allows them to be trained at Forts.

Further statistics[]

As Uhlans are unique to the Germans and John Black's Mercenaries, only technologies that they have access to are shown in the following table:

Unit strengths and weaknesses
Strong vs. Ranged infantry, Shock Infantry, artillery
Weak vs. Heavy infantry, light cavalry
Hit points Cavalry Cuirass.png Cavalry Cuirass (+10%)
Comanche Horse Breeding.png Comanche Horse Breeding (+10%)
Cree Tanning.png Cree Tanning (+5%)
Navajo Weaving.png Navajo Weaving (+5%)
Attack Pillage.png Pillage (+25% siege attack)
Yoga.png Yoga (+5%)
Sight Town Watch.png Town Watch (+2)
Speed Comanche Mustangs.png Comanche Mustangs (+10%)
Apache Endurance.png Apache Endurance (+5%)
Creation speed Mass Cavalry.png Mass Cavalry (-35%)
Cheyenne Horse Trading.png Cheyenne Horse Trading (-25%)
Inca Chaquis Messengers.png Quechuan Diet (-25%)
Train cost Mapuche Ad-mapu.png Mapuche Ad-mapu (-10% coin cost)
Other Merritocracy.png Meritocracy (-20% upgrade cost)

Home City Cards[]

As Uhlans are unique to the Germans and John Black's Mercenaries, only their cards and other civilizations' TEAM cards are shown in the following tables:


Age of Empires III[]

  • The in-game description is "Light cavalry[sic] that sacrifices hitpoints for attack."

Definitive Edition[]

  • The in-game description is "Hand cavalry that sacrifices hitpoints for attack."

The African Royals[]

  • With update 43871, the Uhlan portrait has been updated to align with his in-game appearance.


  • Royal Guard and Consulate Uhlans are named after the high, four-pointed cap used by Polish Uhlans.
  • The United States' ability to access Czapka Uhlans through the "Pulaski's Legion" Home City Card is a reference to the Legion with the same name, a cavalry and infantry regiment under the command of Polish-born General Casimir Pulaski and Hungarian nobleman Michael Kovats de Fabriczy for their service with the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and was one of the few cavalry regiments in the Continental Army.
    • Michael Kovats de Fabriczy is referenced in the United States' "Kovat's Legion" Home City Card.


Uhlans grew out of Polish light cavalry used by the Prussians and from the Tartars that settled in Lithuania after their defeat by Tamerlane. These Tartars were - like their forefathers - an elite mounted cavalry. In the nineteenth century, Prussian cavalry from Poland were called uhlans, and before long light cavalry in general were referred to as uhlans.

Uhlans wore a distinctive four-cornered hat, the czapka, which was tall and sometimes decorated with plumes, and a jacket called an ulanka. They were armed with lances, sabers and, later, pistols.