The Mortar can be used effectively against buildings and ships, but it is unable to attack land units. They deal greatly inferior damage to Petard, though they can attack from great range and aren't suicide units, giving them more strategic value in a greater number of situations.
They play similarly to the Trebuchet from Age of Empires II in that they have very long range and must be packed up to move and fire. With 12 Missionaries (Japanese ally), Unction and all attack improvement cards, the Spanish Mortar is the artillery with the highest siege attack, 1390.
The ArgentinaRevolution also allows the player to ship Argentine Mortars, which ships 1 Mortar and upgrades them to Imperial Howitzers.
The Native American civilizations can train Captured Mortars in the Imperial Age from the Native Embassy (since update 23511). The Captured Mortar is the Native American equivalent of European Mortars with similar stats to the Howitzer, and which can be upgraded by Native upgrades — such as Legendary Native Warriors — as well as various Home City Cards.
A mortar is an artillery piece with a short barrel and a large bore that fires massive projectiles in a high arc. The name "mortar" probably refers to its resemblance to the mortar of a mortar and pestle. The high arc of a mortar's fire reaches emplacements and buildings that are screened by terrain or walls or other permanent defenses. The projectile a mortar fired was filled with gunpowder and fitted with a fuse that was lit right before firing the mortar. The artillery crew had to carefully measure how long to make the fuse for the mortar to explode at the right moment (usually on impact). This made mortars much better at firing on buildings and fortifications than on fluid groups of moving troops.
A Mortar in Bombard mode
A Mortar in Limber mode
A(n) (Imperial) Howitzer in Limber mode
A Howitzer in Bombard mode
Mortar firing a huge shell following a reload
A Mortar fixed on top of the Monitor
Mortar from 1864 on a railroad, during the US Civil War
Mortar of 18th century
Mortar in the original game and in the Definitive Edition