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Not to be confused with Mangonel, the siege weapon.

Civilization Technology tree Strategy

A harsh life of hunting and pastoralism breeds a hardier people. Unite the fractious tribes of the Mongolian steppe and lead vast mounted hordes to the edges of the known world. Learn siegecraft from Chinese engineers and demolish even the sturdiest cities while you build the greatest empire that the world has ever seen! Your potent Mangudai shower all who dare stand in your way with a storm of arrows while tumens of lightning-quick cavalry ride them down into the dirt.
—Description[1]

The Mongols' civilization music theme in the Definitive Edition

The Mongols are an East Asian civilization in Age of Empires II. They focus on mounted archers.

The Mongols were a collection of nomadic tribes from the steppes of East-Central Asia and Siberia. They were fierce warriors who are known for establishing the largest contiguous overland empire in human history. At the beginning of the 13th century, the Mongol clans became united under Temujin who later became known as Genghis Khan following a campaign of foreign conquest of more developed and technologically advanced civilizations across East Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. At its height, their empire stretched from Korea across Asia and into European Russia to the Baltic Sea coast. They held most of Asia Minor, modern Iraq, modern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tibet, parts of India, parts of Burma, all of China, and parts of Vietnam. They also were the predeccesor of the Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan Dynasty and even the Timurid Empire.

Although greatly outnumbered in many key battles, the Mongols utilized a variety of highly mobile warfare tactics involving highly skilled cavalry archers whose long range and accuracy provided by the unprecedented Mongol recurve bow gave them a great advantage on the battlefield. Much of the army consisted of light cavalry which were extremely light troops compared to those of other armies. This allowed them to execute tactics and maneuvers that would otherwise have been impractical. Having this mobility made it possible to send them on successful scouting missions, gathering intelligence about routes and terrain suited to the preferred combat tactics of the Mongols. This is reflected by their civilization bonuses which benefit their cavalry archers, Light Cavalry and Steppe Lancers, team bonus which increases the Line of Sight of Light Cavalry, Unique unit and their unique technology. For centuries, and even nowadays, the Mongols have been skilled hunters, which is directly reflected in their fast-working hunters. And to reflect their nomadic lifestyle, their unique technology, Nomads, allows them to keep their population even when their Houses have been destroyed.

Overview[]

As a cavalry archer civilization, the Mongols have excellent Cavalry Archers, arguably the best of all civilizations. This is due to their higher Rate of Fire which greatly improves the effective damage output of not only Cavalry Archers, but also Mangudai. The other key unit of the Mongol army, the Hussar, comes with great advantages, too, with greater Line of Sight which is extremely beneficial in the very early game for scouting, and higher HP (and in the Definitive Edition, with Steppe Lancers affected by the HP boost). Put all together, these units form a very threatening and very mobile force. This also works great with their excellent siege weapons which also receive a great speed boost thanks to Drill. Outside these areas of expertise the Mongols fare rather poorly. Their other archers and cavalry units miss important upgrades at the Blacksmith. The infantry, however, is solid despite missing the Halberdier and Supplies. On the water, the lack of Dry Dock is really unfortunate since it means their ships miss out on an important speed boost. Otherwise, their navy is fair. Their Monks are among the worst of all civilizations, and their defensive structures and economy are also both very weak.

Campaign appearances[]

The Mongols have a campaign devoted to their civilization: Genghis Khan. They also appear in:

Genghis Khan[]

This campaign is played as the Mongols.

  • Crucible
    • Kara Khitai - Enemy
    • Genghis Khan - Ally
    • Kereyids (in the Definitive Edition) - Ally
    • Tayichi'uds - Ally or Enemy
    • Uighurs (before the Definitive Edition) - Ally
    • Naiman - Ally or Enemy
    • Ungirrads - Ally
  • A Life of Revenge
    • Kara Khitai - Enemy
    • Kushluk - Enemy
    • Tayichi'ud - Enemy
  • The Horde Rides West (before the Definitive Edition)
    • Merkids - Enemy

Barbarossa[]

Attila the Hun[]

Battles of the Forgotten[]

Gajah Mada[]

Tamerlane[]

Ivaylo[]

Kotyan Khan[]

Edward Longshanks[]

Characteristics[]

Unique unit[]

MangudaiIcon-DE.png Mangudai: Cavalry archer with an attack bonus against siege weapons

Unique technologies[]

CastleAgeUnique.png Nomads: Makes Houses keep their population space if they are destroyed.
Unique-tech-imperial.jpg Drill: Increases the movement speed of Siege Workshop units by +50%.

Civilization bonuses[]

Team bonus[]

The Scout Cavalry line has +2 Line of Sight.

Changelog[]

The Age of Kings[]

  • Can research Elite Cannon Galleon.
  • Mangudai only have a single attack bonus against siege weapons of +3 (+5 for Elite).
  • Mangudai have a Rate of Fire of 2.0.
  • Mangudai have an accuracy of 100%.
  • Mangudai move at a speed of 1.43.
  • Mangudai have a train time of 21 seconds.
  • Mangudai (non-Elite) have a frame delay of 10.
  • Elite Mangudai have a frame delay of 0.
  • Hunters work 50% faster.

The Conquerors[]

  • Drill introduced.
  • Mangudai gain a +1 attack bonus against Spearmen.
  • Mangudai Rate of Fire increased (made slower) to 2.1.
  • Mangudai accuracy lowered to 95%.
  • Mangudai move at a speed of 1.45.
  • Mangudai train time increased to 26 seconds.

The Forgotten[]

  • Elite Cannon Galleon removed from the technology tree.
  • Nomads introduced.
  • Mangudai attack bonus against siege weapons reduced to +1.
  • Mangudai receive an attack bonus against rams of +3 (+5 for Elite).
  • Mangudai (non-Elite) frame delay reduced to 5.

The African Kingdoms[]

  • Initially can research Arrowslits. With patch 4.8, it was removed from the technology tree.
  • With patch 4.8, Elite Mangudai now have a frame delay of 5.
  • With patch 4.8, Mangudai get back their initial attack bonus of +3 (+5 for Elite) against siege weapons. The attack bonus against rams is removed.

Definitive Edition[]

  • Destroyed house foundations no longer provide population space with the “Nomads” technology.
  • With update 35584, gain access to Steppe Lancer and Elite Steppe Lancer, which benefit from +30% HP bonus.
  • With update 35584, hunters work 40% faster.
  • Initially could research Supplies. With update 37650, it was removed from their technology tree.

Lords of the West[]

In-game dialogue language[]

In-game, Mongol units speak the Khalkha variety of Mongolian, the most widely spoken of the Mongolic languages and the official language of modern-day Mongolia. Mongolian script (Монгол бичиг), derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, was used to write Classical Mongolian (the one spoken around the 13th century) and has been used until modern times, before being replaced in the Republic of Mongolia by an own version of the Cyrillic alphabet, which also adopts an orthography much closer to the current pronunciation (but Mongolians in China still use the traditional Mongolian alphabet and old orthography). However, the in-game pronunciation seems sometimes to lean towards an Inner Mongolian accent.

Note: The Mongol script is written vertically and from left to right (look for example here), so the one shown here has to be rotated clockwise by 90°; further, it might not be visualized well in the browser.

Villager
  • Select 1 Тiim üü? (Тийм үү? / ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠦᠦ?) - Yes?
  • Select 2 Amar mend üü? (Амар мэнд үү? / ᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠦᠦ?) - Everything's fine? (literally - "Is there peace and serenity?")
  • Select 3 Belen baina (Бэлэн байна / ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ) - I am ready
  • Select 4 Zakhir (Захир / ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷ) - Command! (imperative)
  • Move 1 Za za (За за / ᠵᠠ ᠵᠠ) - Okay / Of course
  • Move 2 Tiim ee (Тийм ээ / ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡ) - Yes / Of course
  • Move 3 Züitei (Зүйтэй / ᠵᠦᠢᠲᠡᠢ) - Correct (literally - "appropriate")
  • Move 4 Bi bolgoyo (Би болгоё) - Let me do it (literally "Let me make it become", causative of "болох / bolokh")
  • Build Barilgachin (Барилгачин / ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠴᠢᠨ) - Builder (it is pronounced barilagchin)
  • Chop Modchin (Модчин / ᠮᠣᠳᠤᠴᠢᠨ) - Wood cutter ("мод / mod" - wood, tree)
  • Farm Khödöö aj akhuin erkhlegch (Хөдөө аж ахуйн эрхлэгч / ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ) - Agricultural manager (goofy translation for "farmer", which would be "тариачин / tariachin" or even "фэрмэр / fermer"; notice that Mongols have never truly practiced agriculture until very recent times)
  • Fish Zagaschin (Загасчин / ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤᠴᠢᠨ) - Fisher ("загас / zagas" - fish)
  • Forage Amitan tejeegch (Амьтан тэжээгч / ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡᠭᠴᠢ) - Animal raiser (literally - "animal feeder", does not appear correct as maybe "[амьтан] үржүүлэгч / [amitan] ürjüülegch")
  • Hunt Anchin (Анчин / ᠠᠩᠴᠢᠨ) - Hunter
  • Mine Uurkhaichin (Уурхайчин / ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠨ) - Miner (уурхай / uurkhai - mine)
  • Repair Zasvarchin (Засварчин / ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠴᠢᠨ) - Repairer
  • Attack Uragshaa davshaad! (Урагшаа давшаад!) - Charge(d) forward!!! (emphatic) (not used)
Military
  • Select 1 Тiim üü? (Тийм үү? / ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠦᠦ?) - Yes?
  • Select 2 Belen (Бэлэн / ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠨ) - Ready
  • Select 3 Tushaal sons (Тушаал сонс / ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠰᠣᠨᠤᠰ) - Listen to the command! (Strange translation, because it is an imperative, so it appears that it is the soldier who is telling the player to listen to a command)
  • Move 1 Medlee, güitsetgiye (Мэдлээ, гүйцэтгье) - Got it, let's carry it out (the common pronunciation for these forms in "-ье / -ye" is "-ий / iy")
  • Move 2 Güitsetgiye (Гүйцэтгье) - Let's carry it out
  • Move 3 Тiim (Тийм / ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ?) - Yes
  • Attack 1 Uragshaa davshaad! (Урагшаа давшаад!) - Charge(d) forward!!! (emphatic)
  • Attack 2 Baildaand! (Байлдаанд! / ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ!) - To the fight!
  • Attack 3 Medlee, güitsetgiye! (Мэдлээ, гүйцэтгье!) - Got it, let's carry it out!
  • Attack 4 Khurailan davsh! (Хурайлан давш!) - Advance with a "hurray"! (- "хурай / khurai", onomatopoeic)
Monk
  • Select 1 Bolgoson uu? (Болгосон уу? / ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠ ᠦᠦ?) - Has it been accomplished? (Have you/I/someone done it?)
  • Select 2 Amar mend üü? (Амар мэнд үү? / ᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠦᠦ?) - Everything's fine?
  • Select 3 Soyorkh"yo (Соёрxъё) - I will condescend
  • Select 4 Surgaal sons (Сургаал сонс / ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠰᠣᠨᠤᠰ) - Listen to the doctrine
  • Move 1 Tiim ee (Тийм ээ / ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡ) - Yes / Of course
  • Move 2 Bolgoyo (Болгоё) - Let me do it
  • Move 3 Za züitei (За зүйтэй / ᠵᠠ ᠵᠦᠢᠲᠡᠢ) - Yes, correct (literally - "appropriate")
  • Move 4 Bi bolgoyo (Би болгоё) - Let me do it
King
  • Select 1 Тiim üü? (Тийм үү? / ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠦᠦ?) - Yes?
  • Select 2 Amar mend üü? (Амар мэнд үү? / ᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠦᠦ?) - Everything's fine?
  • Select 3 Belen baina (Бэлэн байна / ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ) - I am ready
  • Select 4 Aildvar sons (Айлдвар сонс / ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠰᠣᠨᠤᠰ) - Listen to [my] speech (like the soldier and the monk, it is the king who is addressing the player, not the contrary!)
  • Move 1 Za (За / ᠵᠠ) - Okay (sounds condescending)
  • Move 2 Tiim ee (Тийм ээ / ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡ) - Yes / Of course
  • Move 3 Züi (Зүй / ᠵᠦᠢ) - Decency
  • Move 4 Bi bolgoyo (Би болгоё) - Let me do it

AI player names[]

When playing a random map game against the computer, the player may encounter any of the following Mongol AI characters:

  • Batu Khan (ᠪ? ᠲᠣ): A Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, division of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan.
  • Chagatai Khan (ᠴ? ᠭ? ᠲ? ᠢ): was the second son of Genghis Khan. He was Khan of the Chagatai Khanate from 1226-1242 C.E. The Chagatai language and Chagatai Turks take their names from him. He inherited most of what are now the five Central Asian states after the death of his father.
  • Chepe (ᠵᠡᠪᠡ; Jebe or Jebei): One of the prominent Noyans (generals) of Genghis Khan. He belonged to the Besud clan, part of the Taichud tribe, which was under Targudai Khiriltug's leadership at the time of Genghis Khan.
  • Genghis Khan (ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬ? ᠭ? ᠨ, Чингис Хаан): (c. 1162 – August 18, 1227; born Temüjin): The Great Khan and founder of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties.
  • Guyuk Khan (ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠭ): The third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He reigned from 1246 to 1248.
  • Hulegu Khan (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ): was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia. Son of Tolui and the Keraite princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan. He was the founder of the Ilkhanate of Persia.
  • Jochi (ᠵᠥᠴᠢ): was a Mongolian army commander who was the eldest son of Genghis Khan, and presumably one of the four sons by his principal wife Börte, though issues concerning his paternity followed him throughout his life. An accomplished military leader, he participated in his father's conquest of Central Asia, along with his brothers and uncles.
  • Kabul (ᠬ? ᠪᠤᠯ): The first known Khan of the Khamag Mongol confederation and great-grandfather to Genghis Khan.
  • Khabul Khan (ᠬ? ᠪᠤᠯ): See Kabul.
  • Khubilai Khan (ᠬᠦᠪᠢᠯ? ᠢ ᠬ? ᠭ? ᠨ): Better known as Kublai Khan, the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position). He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.
  • Kitboga (ᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠪᠤᠬ᠎? ): A Nestorian Christian of the Turkic Naiman tribe, a group that was subservient to the Mongol Empire. He was a lieutenant and confidant of the Mongol Ilkhan Hulagu, assisting him in his conquests in the Middle East.
  • Kitbuqa Noyan (ᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠪᠤᠬ᠎? ): See Kitboga.
  • Kushluk (ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠯᠦᠭ): A member of the Naiman tribe of western Mongolia who became the last ruler of Qara Khitai empire. The Naimans were defeated by Genghis Khan and he fled westward to the Qara Khitai, where he became an advisor. He later rebelled, usurped the throne, and took control of Qara Khitai. He was killed in 1218 by the Mongols and the domain of the Qara Khitai absorbed into the rising Mongol Empire.
  • Mongke Khan (ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬ? ᠭ? ᠨ): The fourth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from 1251 to 1259. He was the first Khagan from the Toluid line, and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign.
  • Nogai Khan (ᠨᠣᠬ? ᠢ ᠬ? ᠭ? ᠨ; died 1299/1300): was a general and de facto ruler of the Golden Horde and a great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan. At his height, Nogai was one of the most powerful men in Europe, and widely thought of as the Horde's true head
  • Ogedei Khan (ᠥᠭᠡᠳᠡᠢ ᠬ? ᠭ? ᠨ, Өгэдэй Хан): The third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and East Asia.
  • Subotai (ᠰᠦᠪᠦᠭ? ᠲ? ᠢ, Сүбээдэй): An Uriankhai general, and the primary military strategist of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. He directed more than twenty campaigns in which he conquered thirty-two nations and won sixty-five pitched battles, during which he conquered or overran more territory than any other commander in history. He gained victory by means of imaginative and sophisticated strategies and routinely coordinated movements of armies that were hundreds of kilometers away from each other.
  • Subotai Ba'atur (ᠰᠦᠪᠦᠭ? ᠲ? ᠢ, Сүбээдэй): See Subotai.
  • Tamerlane (ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ): The Turco-Mongol founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia. In the Definitive Edition, he is changed to a Tatar AI player and is the protagonist of the Tatar campaign. He is still mentioned in both the Mongol and Tatar history sections.
  • Toktamish Khan (ᠲᠤᠬᠤᠲ?  ᠤᠰ ᠬ? ᠭ? ᠨ): A prominent khan of the Blue Horde, briefly unified the White Horde and Blue Horde subdivisions of the Golden Horde into a single state. He descended from Genghis Khan's grandson, Tuqa-Timur.
  • Tokhtamysh Khan (ᠲᠤᠬᠤᠲ?  ᠤᠰ ᠬ? ᠭ? ᠨ): See Toktamish Khan.
  • Uzbeg (ᠥᠽᠪᠧᠭ, Өзбег): The longest-reigning khan of the Golden Horde, which reached its zenith under his reign. In the Definitive Edition, he is a Tatar AI player instead, spelled Oz Beg Khan. He is also mentioned in the Tatars' history section.

Trivia[]

  • The Mongols' civilization icon is based on the soyombo symbol which can also be found in the current Mongolian national flag.
  • The user interface image in the Definitive Edition displays a tug banner.
  • The Mongols are the only East Asian civilization that can research Heresy, which could be considered a historical inaccuracy, since Mongols were absorbed into other cultures and religions (most notably into the Buddhism and Islam), though their relatives, the Tatars, lack it. It is likely their access to Heresy is supposed to reflect Genghis Khan's virtue of loyalty to the khan.
  • The Mongols are believed to acquire gunpowder during their conquests of China and used it in several forms such as Fire Lances and "naphtha-shooters" through their invasions of Khwarezmia, Eastern Europe (where they even were credited to introduce it) and Japan. However, and much like the Chinese, the Mongols only get access to the Cannon Galleon and Petards, due to balance reasons, as they have very good cavalry archers and siege weapons boosted by Drill.
  • Tamerlane is instead a Tatar AI player name in the Definitive Edition, as well as the subject of the Tatar campaign. In the same way, Uzbeg was moved to the Tatars AI player names (where is now named accordingly Öz Beg Khan). The change was made possibly for historical accuracy, as both were less direct descendants of Genghis Khan, whose direct sons and descendants are named in the Mongol AI player names.
    • Tamerlane, however, still remains directly mentioned in both Mongol and Tatar game history sections.
  • The Mongols are the only civilization without the Central Asian building set that have access to the Steppe Lancer line, and one of only two East Asian civilizations that have access to the Camel Rider line (the other being the Chinese).
  • They are also the only civilization that lacks all Imperial economy technologies.
  • The Mongols are a very effective civilization for competitive players at high level, mostly due to their hunting bonus (which was considered too effective on maps with a great amount of huntables, thus being reduced a bit) allowing them to reach Feudal Age very quickly and make Scout rushes earlier. Their unique unit, the Mangudai, is recognized by most players as among the strongest and most effective in the game, to the point that in Post-Imperial Age games, it is one of the hardest to counter properly, especially if paired with their resistant Hussars.

History[]

The Mongols were nomads from the steppes of Central Asia. They were fierce warriors who fought each other over pasturelands and raided developed civilizations to the east and south. At the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Mongol clans united and began a campaign of foreign conquest. Following in the hoofprints of the Huns, their predecessors by a thousand years, they carved out one of the largest empires the world has yet seen.

The Mongols inhabited the plains south of Lake Baikal in modern Mongolia. At its maximum, their empire stretched from Korea, across Asia, and into European Russia to the Baltic Sea coast. They held most of Asia Minor, modern Iraq, modern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tibet, parts of India, parts of Burma, all of China, and parts of Vietnam.

The Mongol clans were united by Temuchin, called Genghis Khan (“mighty ruler”), in the early thirteenth century. His ambition was to rule all lands between the oceans (Pacific and Atlantic) and he nearly did so. Beginning with only an estimated 25,000 warriors, he added strength by subjugating other nomads and attacked northern China in 1211. He took Beijing in 1215 after a campaign that may have cost 30 million Chinese lives. The Mongols then turned west, capturing the great trading city Bukhara on the Silk Road in 1220. The city was burned to the ground and the inhabitants murdered.

Following Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, his son Ogedei completed the conquest of northern China and advanced into Europe. He destroyed Kiev in 1240 and advanced into Hungary. When Ogedei died on campaign in 1241, the entire army fell back to settle the question of succession. Europe was spared as Mongol rulers concentrated their efforts against the Middle East and southern China. Hulagu, a grandson of Genghis, exterminated the Muslim “Assassins” and then took the Muslim capital of Baghdad in 1258. Most of the city’s 100,000 inhabitants were murdered. In 1260 a Muslim army of Egyptian Mamelukes (warrior slaves of high status) defeated the Mongols in present-day Israel, ending the Mongol threat to Islam and its holy cities.

Kublai Khan, another grandson of Genghis, completed the conquest of China in 1279, establishing the Yuan dynasty. Attempted invasions of Japan were thrown back with heavy loss in 1274 and 1281. In 1294 Kublai Khan died in China, and Mongol power began to decline in Asia and elsewhere. In 1368 the Yuan dynasty in China was overthrown in favor of the Ming.

In the 1370’s a Turkish-Mongol warrior claiming descent from Genghis Khan fought his way to leadership of the Mongol states of Central Asia and set out to restore the Mongol Empire. His name was Timur Leng (Timur, “the Lame,” or Tamerlane to Europeans and the Prince of Destruction to Asians). With another army of 100,000 or so horsemen, he swept into Russia and Persia, fighting mainly other Muslims. In 1398 he sacked Delhi, murdering 100,000 inhabitants. He rushed west defeating an Egyptian Mameluke army in Syria. In 1402 he defeated a large Ottoman Turk army near modern Ankara. On the verge of destroying the Ottoman Empire, he turned again suddenly. He died in 1405 while marching for China. He preferred capturing wealth and engaged in wholesale slaughter, without pausing to install stable governments in his wake. Because of this, the huge realm inherited by his sons fell apart quickly after his death.
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References[]