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"The vast Eurasian plains were home to nomadic tribes whose steppe husbandry and fearsome exploits still live on in the records of their terrified neighbors. Lead the Cuman-Kipchak hordes to war and pillage to your heart’s content, or offer your riders as coveted mercenaries in the service of foreign kings. When an even greater threat looms to the east, will you migrate west and adopt the lifestyle and warcraft of your sedentary neighbors, or vanish before an unstoppable wave of Mongol conquerors?"
Description[1]

The Cumans are a Central Asian civilization introduced in Age of Empires II: Definitive Edition. They focus on cavalry.

Historically, the Cumans (also known as Polovtsians) were a nomadic Turkic people who, at their height, inhabited the areas between the Black Sea and the Volga River, formed a confederation with the Kipchaks and influenced the politics of neighbouring states such as Kievan Rus', the Pechenegs, the Byzantine Empire, etc. This would last until the mid-13th century, as they became scattered due to the Mongols' onslaught.

The Cuman warriors were skilled horsemen who usually fought as light cavalry armed with bow and other weapons. To reflect this, the Cumans can research the Steppe Husbandry unique technology to boost their Scout Cavalry and Cavalry Archers production speed. In addition, the Cumans are also able to train the Kipchak unique unit, which is basically a cavalry archer capable of shooting multiple arrows at once.

Because the Cumans were nomadic people who spent a lot of time on horseback since their childhood, they possessed excellent mobility and were able to migrate to another land quickly once the situation in their current land became disadvantageous. To reflect this, the Cumans' cavalry move faster than most other civilizations' cavalry.

Prior to the rise of the Mongol Empire, the Cumans inhabited a vast area in Eurasia known as Cumania. When they became settled in certain places, they started constructing forts for defense. To reflect this, the Cumans have a team bonus where they and their allies can construct Palisade Walls with higher HP.

When Cumania was finally conquered by the Mongols, the remaining Cuman people migrated to the west (Eastern Europe) and built new settlements there. To reflect their ability of quickly establishing themselves in the new land, the Cumans are able to build an additional Town Center in the Feudal Age. The Cuman warriors often lent their service to various foreign rulers in Europe and this is reflected by their Cuman Mercenaries unique technology, where Cumans' allies can train 10 Elite Kipchaks for free.

Although Cumans were more famous for their fighting ability on the open field, they were also capable of laying siege to heavily fortified sites, such as Pereiaslav and Thessaloniki. To reflect this, the Cumans are able to build Siege Workshops and Battering Rams since the Feudal Age.

Overview Edit

The Cumans are classified as a cavalry civilization. Their cavalry is very strong, having fully upgraded Hussars, Paladins, and Steppe Lancers, as well as the Steppe Husbandry unique technology, which makes the Scout Cavalry line and Steppe Lancer train 50% faster; furthermore, their cavalry move 5%/10%/15% faster  in the Feudal/Castle/Imperial Age. Curiously enough, they are the only camel civilization that don't have access to the Heavy Camel Rider.

Their cavalry archers are amongst the best in the game, with fast-firing Kipchaks and Steppe Husbandry allowing the Cavalry Archer line to be created 100% faster; however, their lack of Bracer makes them weaker in the Imperial Age. Foot archers, on the other hand, are rather weak, due to the lack of Bracer, Arbalester and Hand Cannoneer.

Infantry is ordinary: all upgrades are available, but nothing specific.

Siege units have an advantage in the form of Rams being available in the Feudal Age. Late in the game, Cumans lack Siege Engineers, Heavy Scorpions and Bombard Cannons.

Ships are amongst the worst in the game: no Cannon Galleons, Heavy Demolition Ships, Bracer, Dry Dock, and Shipwright.

Along with Goths, Cumans don't have access to Stone Walls; their Palisade Walls, on the other hand, have +50% HP as a team bonus. In defenses, they also lack Guard Towers, Bombard Towers, Architecture, Arrowslits, and Treadmill Crane.

Monks are mediocre, lacking Redemption, Illumination, Block Printing and Theocracy.

Their economy is solid, lacking only Stone Shaft Mining, but having the ability to build an additional Town Center in the Feudal Age compensates for this completely.

Campaign appearances Edit

The Cumans have a campaign devoted to their civilization: Kotyan Khan.

They also appear in:

Barbarossa Edit

Genghis Khan Edit

Tamerlane Edit

Ivaylo Edit

Characteristics Edit

Unique units Edit

Kipchakicon Kipchak: Multi-shot cavalry archer.

Unique technologies Edit

UniqueTechCastle-DE Steppe Husbandry: Scout Cavalry line, Steppe Lancers and Cavalry Archers are trained 50%faster.
UniqueTechImperial-DE Cuman Mercenaries: Team members can create 10 free Elite Kipchaks in the Castle.

Civilization bonuses Edit

Team bonus Edit

Palisade Walls have +50% hit points.

Changelog Edit

Definitive Edition Edit

  • Initially can research Husbandry. With update 34055, it was removed from their technology tree.
  • Initially can research Redemption. With update 36202, no longer have access to the Redemption technology.
  • Initially, cavalry moves 10% faster starting in the Feudal Age. With Update 34055, the bonus was staggered to 5%/10%/15% in the Feudal/Castle/Imperial Age.
  • Initially Kipchaks have 1.8 ROF. With Update 34055, they now have 2.2 ROF.
  • Initially (Elite) Kipchaks have 50 (55) HP. With Update 34055, they now have 40 (45) HP.
  • Initially Elite Kipchaks fire four arrows at once. With Update 34055, they now fire three arrows at once.
  • With Update 34055, the time to construct a Feudal Age Town Center increased from 225 to 270 seconds.
  • With update 36202, can now research Capped Ram in the Castle Age.
  • With update 36202, Kipchak [Standard and Elite] now fire +1 extra arrow.
  • With update 36202, Steppe Husbandry now grants its benefits to Steppe Lancers and the effect was reduced from 80% to 50%.

In-game dialogue language Edit

Cuman units speak Crimean Tatar, a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by their namesake in Crimea, today disputed between Russia and Ukraine. Historically, the Cumans spoke their namesake Kipchak language which was recorded in the Codex Cumanicus and become extinct in 1770, leaving Crimean Tatar as one of its closest surviving relatives.

Even though Crimean Tatar is closely related to Siberian Tatar and Volga Tatar (spoken by the Tatars), they belong to different subgroups: Crimean Tatar (along with the extinct Cuman) to the Kipchak-Cuman group, Siberian Tatar to the Kipchak-Nogai group, and Volga Tatar to the Kipchak-Bulgar group. That being said, all three of them are nonetheless distantly related to the Oghuz language spoken by the Turks.

  • Evät? (Эвәт) – Yes?
  • Saläm (Саләм) – Hello
  • Buyrıgıñız? (Буйрыгыңыз?) – Your order?
  • Anukmän – (Анукмән) I'm ready
  • Maratbäy (Маратбәй)
  • Barurmän (Барурмән) – I (shall) arrive
  • Anladum (Анладум) – I understood
  • Bir ançaydermän (Бир анчайдермән) – Will do at once
  • Ağaç kesärmän (Ағач кесәрмән) – Chopper (I chop tree)
  • Çıplarmän (Чыплармән) – Gatherer/Farmer (I gather)
  • Avlarmän (Авлармән) – Hunter (I hunt)
  • Baluklarmän (Балуклармән) – Fisher (I fish)
  • Madın açarmän (Мадын ачармән) – Miner (I mine)
  • Kururmän (Курурмән) – Builder (I build)
  • Sogaşurbäz! (Согашурбәз!) – We fight!
  • Sançızka (Санчызка) – We spear
  • Sıgıtlanıñ (Сыгытланың)
  • Kulluk etärmän (Куллук этәрмән) – I serve

AI player names Edit

When playing a random map game against the computer, the player may encounter any of the following Cuman AI characters:

  • Aepa: A Cuman khan; died around 1120.
  • Alp Tarkhan: A Khazar general who was active in the early 8th century on the war against the Arabs.
  • Altunopa: One of the many clans who made up the Cuman-Kipchak confederation. Their name means "Gold Clan".
  • Boniak the Mangy: A Cuman chieftain in the late 11th and early 12th century who allied with the Byzantines against the nomadic Pechenegs and later made war against the 'Rus and Hungary.
  • Bulan Khagan: A Khazar king who led the Khazars to convert into Judaism sometime between the 8th and 9th century.
  • Danylo Kobiakovych: A Cuman khan in the 1220s.
  • Ildeya Khan:​​​​​​ A Pecheneg prince; lived around 975.
  • Konchak Otrakovich: A Cuman khan, who was involved in wars and raids with the Russians and united the western and eastern Cuman-Kipchak tribes.
  • Kotyan Khan: The main character of the Cumans' campaign. He is a Cuman-Kipchak khan who made alliance with various Eastern Europe rulers to oppose the Mongols
  • Kurya Khan: A Pecheneg khan; ruled to 988.
  • Otrok Khan: A Cuman-Kipchak khan; died 1125.
  • Sokal: A Cuman chieftain who won a major victory against the Kievan Rus' in 1061.
  • Sutoi: Father of Kotyan.
  • Yurii Konchakovych: A Cuman khan in the 1220s.

Trivia Edit

  • The Cumans are the only civilization who can build an extra Town Center, Siege Workshops and Battering Rams from the Feudal Age. Also, they are the only civilization with access to Camel Riders who cannot upgrade them into Heavy Camel Riders.
  • The Cumans, along with the Goths, are the only civilizations who cannot build Stone Walls. Also, they, along with the Malians, are the only civilizations that have access to Siege Onagers, but lack Siege Engineers.
  • The Cumans' civilization icon is based on masks worn by Cuman-Kipchak warriors.
  • Islamic historians mentioned a people named Qun, who were forced out of their East Asian homeland by the Mongolic-speaking Qay, who in turn had been expelled by their Khitan cousins. The Qun were possibly precursors to the Cumans (as Magyars recorded the Cumans' ethnonym as Kun).
  • The Cumans' Wonder (Sarkel Fortress) was historically built by the Khazars, another Turkic people. As the Wonder appears ruined in-game, just like the Huns' wonder (the ruined Arc of Constantine), this signifies that in-game Cumans merely capture Persianate Central Asian buildings to dwell, just as the Huns dwell in captured Central European buildings.
    • Indeed, Cuman-Kipchaks historically reached Khwarezm, a region rich in Turco-Persian cultural tradition.
  • Some Cuman AI players are named after Khazar and Pecheneg rulers, possibly showing that the Cumans represent not only the Cuman-Kipchak confederation/Cumania, but also other Turkic peoples who historically occupied the Pontic-Caspian steppes.
  • Due to sharing the same architecture style as the Tatars, the Cumans' Monastery is designed after a mosque. Early in their history, Khazars, Pechenegs, and Cumans-Kipchaks were not Muslims, but Tengri-worshipping pagans. Only later would those peoples convert to Abrahamic religions. As a result, Khazar, Pecheneg, and Cuman-Kipchak societies were religiously pluralistic. Later on, Cumans would be completely assimilated into other ethnicities (Magyars, Bulgarians, Slavs, Kipchaks, Tatars, Arabs, etc.); thus, the Cumans' descendants practice Christianity as well as Islam.
    • This is a quirk they shared with the Byzantines and the Ethiopians, before both civilizations' architecture style was changed in the Definitive Edition, to better reflect the historical fact that Byzantines and Ethiopians were Christians.

History Edit

"The Cumans are Turkic nomads whose origins can be traced to the east of the Yellow River. After being pushed out of their homeland by the warring Khitan tribes, they migrated westwards during the tenth century. The Cumans eventually reached the Kazakh steppes, where they allied themselves with another Turkic tribe, the Kipchaks. The two groups quickly merged into one and together they came to dominate the vast territory between present-day Bulgaria and Kazakhstan in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

Rather than an empire with a strong central government, the Cuman-Kipchak confederacy was a loose union of independent tribes that exerted power based on kinship and military strength. The latter mainly consisted of light cavalry archers and heavily armored lancers, but mangonels and ballistas were also regularly employed. The Cumans launched several campaigns into Kievan Russia, the Balkans, and the Khwarazmian Empire. Most famously, chieftain Boniak (r. c. 1091-1107) aided the Byzantine emperor in repelling a Pecheneg invasion at Levounion, raided several monasteries near Kiev, and defeated the Hungarian king Coloman, all within a few years. However, the Cumans also used more diplomatic tactics, such as marriage and military service, to expand their influence in the surrounding states. Chieftain Seyhan, for example, married his daughter Elizabeth to king Stephen V of Hungary. In Bulgaria, the assistance of Cuman cavalry was essential to the success of the revolt against the Byzantines in 1185. Consequently, some Cuman leaders were ennobled when the Second Bulgarian Empire (1186-1396) was established.

Although the Cumans assimilated elements from the many civilizations that they encountered, the Cuman-Kipchak culture remained true to its nomadic lifestyle for a long time. Their economy was based on animal husbandry and trade. Only a minority engaged in semi-sedentary activities such as blacksmithing or leatherworking. Society was structured around the family. Together with related families, they lived and moved as a clan. The Cumans worshipped their ancestral spirits through stone or wooden anthropomorphic statues, called Balbals. As practitioners of shamanism, they also believed in animal spirits. The dog and wolf in particular were seen as sacred. Chieftain Boniak, for instance, determined that the conditions were favorable to fight the Hungarian king by howling with the wolves the night before the battle.

In the early thirteenth century, Mongolian and Tatar armies conquered the Cuman-Kipchak confederacy. Khan Kotyan tried to muster resistance by allying with the Rus’, but suffered a major defeat at the Kalka River in 1223. Many Cumans subsequently fled to the neighbouring states, where they gradually assimilated into the local populations. Others were, however, captured and sold as slaves. The Sultan of Egypt, al-Sahil Ayyubi (r. 1240-1249), bought many Cuman-Kipchaks and enrolled them as Mamluks, highly trained slave warriors. By 1250, the Mamluks had used their military strength to seize power in Egypt, thus establishing the Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517). For over a century, the sultan of this powerful empire would be of Cuman-Kipchak origins.
"

Gallery Edit

Notes and references Edit

  1. https://www.forgottenempires.net/age-of-empires-ii-definitive-edition/civilizations/cumans
  2. For any Town Center built in the Feudal Age, the construction time is increased by 80% (2:30 → 4:30 minutes for a single Villager construction time); this includes the situation where the player has no Town Center. The debuff is removed instantly upon reaching the Castle Age, even for a Town Center which foundation was laid in the Feudal Age.
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