Historically, the Cumans (also known as the Polovtsians) were a nomadic Turkic people who, at their height, inhabited the areas between the Black Sea and the Volga River, formed a confederation with the Kipchaks and influenced the politics of neighbouring states such as Kievan Rus', the Pechenegs, the Byzantine Empire, etc. This would last until the mid-13th century, as they became scattered due to the Mongols' onslaught.
The Cuman warriors were skilled horsemen who usually fought as light cavalry armed with bow and other weapons. To reflect this, the Cumans can research the Steppe Husbandry unique technology to boost their Scout Cavalry and Cavalry Archers production speed. In addition, the Cumans are also able to train the Kipchak unique unit, which is basically a cavalry archer capable of shooting multiple arrows at once.
Because the Cumans were nomadic people who spent a lot of time on horseback since their childhood, they possessed excellent mobility and were able to migrate to another land quickly once the situation in their current land became disadvantageous. To reflect this, the Cumans' cavalry move faster than most other civilizations' cavalry.
Prior to the rise of the Mongol Empire, the Cumans inhabited a vast area in Eurasia known as Cumania. When they became settled in certain places, they started constructing forts for defense. To reflect this, the Cumans have a team bonus where they and their allies can construct Palisade Walls with higher HP.
When Cumania was finally conquered by the Mongols, the remaining Cuman people migrated to the west (Eastern Europe) and built new settlements there. To reflect their ability of quickly establishing themselves in the new land, the Cumans are able to build an additional Town Center in the Feudal Age. The Cuman warriors often lent their service to various foreign rulers in Europe and this is reflected by their Cuman Mercenaries unique technology, where Cumans' allies can train 10 Elite Kipchaks for free.
Although Cumans were more famous for their fighting ability on the open field, they were also capable of laying siege to heavily fortified sites, such as Pereiaslav and Thessaloniki. To reflect this, the Cumans were able to build both Siege Workshops and Battering Rams since the Feudal Age.
The Cumans are classified as a cavalry civilization. Their cavalry is very strong, having fully upgraded Hussars, Paladins, and Steppe Lancers, as well as the Steppe Husbandry unique technology, which makes the Scout Cavalry line train 80% faster; furthermore, their cavalry moves 10% faster starting in the Feudal Age. Curiously enough, they are the only camel civilization that don't have access to the Heavy Camel Rider.
Their cavalry archers are amongst the best in the game, with fast-firing Kipchaks and Steppe Husbandry allowing the Cavalry Archer line to be created 80% faster. Foot archers, on the other hand, are rather weak, due to the lack of Bracer, Arbalester and Hand Cannoneer.
Infantry is ordinary: all upgrades are available, but nothing specific.
Along with Goths, Cumans don't have access to Stone Walls; their Palisade Walls, on the other hand, have +50% HP as a team bonus. In defenses, they also lack Guard Towers, Bombard Towers, Architecture, Arrowslits, and Treadmill Crane.
Their economy is solid, lacking only Stone Shaft Mining, but having the ability to build an additional Town Center in the Feudal Age compensates for this completely.
Campaign appearances Edit
The Cumans have a campaign devoted to their civilization: Kotyan Khan.
They also appear in Holy Roman Emperor (the first scenario of the Barbarossa campaign), The Horde Rides West (the fourth scenario of the Genghis Khan campaign) and Harbinger of Destruction (the third scenario of the Tamerlane campaign).
Unique units Edit
Unique technologies Edit
Civilization bonuses Edit
Team bonus Edit
Definitive Edition Edit
In-game dialogue language Edit
Cuman units speak Crimean Tatar, a Kipchak Turkic language spoken by their namesake in Crimea, today disputed between Russia and Ukraine. Historically, the Cumans spoke their namesake Kipchak language which was recorded in the Codex Cumanicus and become extinct in 1770, leaving Crimean Tatar as one of its closest surviving relatives.
Even though Crimean Tatar is closely related to Siberian Tatar and Volga Tatar (spoken by the Tatars), they belong to different subgroups: Crimean Tatar (along with the extinct Cuman) to the Kipchak-Cuman group, Siberian Tatar to the Kipchak-Nogai group, and Volga Tatar to the Kipchak-Bulgar group. That being said, all three of them are nonetheless distantly related to the Oghuz language spoken by the Turks.
AI player names Edit
The Cumans are Turkic nomads whose origins can be traced to the east of the Yellow River. After being pushed out of their homeland by the warring Khitan tribes, they migrated westwards during the tenth century. The Cumans eventually reached the Kazakh steppes, where they allied themselves with another Turkic tribe, the Kipchaks. The two groups quickly merged into one and together they came to dominate the vast territory between present-day Bulgaria and Kazakhstan in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Rather than an empire with a strong central government, the Cuman-Kipchak confederacy was a loose union of independent tribes that exerted power based on kinship and military strength. The latter mainly consisted of light cavalry archers and heavily armored lancers, but mangonels and ballistas were also regularly employed. The Cumans launched several campaigns into Kievan Russia, the Balkans, and the Khwarazmian Empire. Most famously, chieftain Boniak (r. c. 1091-1107) aided the Byzantine emperor in repelling a Pecheneg invasion at Levounion, raided several monasteries near Kiev, and defeated the Hungarian king Coloman, all within a few years. However, the Cumans also used more diplomatic tactics, such as marriage and military service, to expand their influence in the surrounding states. Chieftain Seyhan, for example, married his daughter Elizabeth to king Stephen V of Hungary. In Bulgaria, the assistance of Cuman cavalry was essential to the success of the revolt against the Byzantines in 1185. Consequently, some Cuman leaders were ennobled when the Second Bulgarian Empire (1186-1396) was established.
Although the Cumans assimilated elements from the many civilizations that they encountered, the Cuman-Kipchak culture remained true to its nomadic lifestyle for a long time. Their economy was based on animal husbandry and trade. Only a minority engaged in semi-sedentary activities such as blacksmithing or leatherworking. Society was structured around the family. Together with related families, they lived and moved as a clan. The Cumans worshipped their ancestral spirits through stone or wooden anthropomorphic statues, called Balbals. As practitioners of shamanism, they also believed in animal spirits. The dog and wolf in particular were seen as sacred. Chieftain Boniak, for instance, determined that the conditions were favorable to fight the Hungarian king by howling with the wolves the night before the battle.
In the early thirteenth century, Mongolian and Tatar armies conquered the Cuman-Kipchak confederacy. Khan Kotyan tried to muster resistance by allying with the Rus’, but suffered a major defeat at the Kalka River in 1223. Many Cumans subsequently fled to the neighbouring states, where they gradually assimilated into the local populations. Others were, however, captured and sold as slaves. The Sultan of Egypt, al-Sahil Ayyubi (r. 1240-1249), bought many Cuman-Kipchaks and enrolled them as Mamluks, highly trained slave warriors. By 1250, the Mamluks had used their military strength to seize power in Egypt, thus establishing the Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517). For over a century, the sultan of this powerful empire would be of Cuman-Kipchak origins.
Notes and references Edit