Age of Empires Series Wiki
Info icon.png
This article is about the civilization in Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings. For the civilization in Age of Empires: The Rise of Rome, see Romans.
Civilization Technology tree Strategy
While the Western Roman Empire decayed and collapsed, its eastern half in Byzantium remained an imperial titan for centuries to come. Repulse countless invasions with imposing fortifications, command vast and versatile armies amassed from within and outside your borders, and immolate enemy fleets with siphons of Greek Fire. Your heavily-armored Cataphracts inspire fear from the Danube to the Euphrates while your scholars propel you into a new age of technology and learning!

The Byzantines' civilization music theme in Definitive Edition

The Byzantines are a Mediterranean European civilization in Age of Empires II (Middle Eastern before the Definitive Edition) based on the empire of the namesake around modern day Greece and Turkey. Although classified as a defensive civilization in-game, they are a versatile civilization in practice, relying on a wide variety of units of all categories for both offense and defense strategies, making the civilization appealing for newer players.


The Byzantines have access to a vast variety of technologies. Standing out are their excellent navy, Monks, and economy, with only a single technology missing (Herbal Medicine) in all three branches put together but with handy perks like Greek Fire and an increased healing speed for Monks. Weak spots in the Byzantine technology tree are hard to make out, but as their lacks in the defenses department (namely Masonry and Architecture) are compensated by a staggering HP bonus for buildings, they are probably best found in their land armies. Their foot archers are excellent, but their Cavalry Archers miss key technologies in Parthian Tactics and Bloodlines. The latter also hurts their cavalry (probably their weakest branch despite having an excellent unique unit there) as well as the missing Blast Furnace which then again does their infantry no favor as well. Working against these disadvantages are their discounts for Camel Riders and Pikemen. Lastly, they lack Siege Engineers, Siege Onagers, and Heavy Scorpions, making their siege department fairly average.

All together, due to their wide technology tree and wide array of bonuses, the Byzantines are hard to anticipate in multiplayer games.

Campaign appearances[]

The Byzantines have a campaign devoted to their civilization: Bari. They also feature in a notable amount of other campaigns. The following list shows every campaign appearance of the Byzantines:


The Byzantines are enemies in all appearances.


Attila the Hun[]

The Byzantines are enemies in all appearances, except in The Fall of Rome in the original edition.

Battles of the Conquerors[]

  • Manzikert
    • Byzantine Army - Enemy
    • Cappadocia - Enemy → Ally
    • Pisidia - Enemy → Ally
    • Galatia - Enemy → Ally
  • Lepanto
    • Greek Village - Neutral → potential Ally


In the HD Edition:

In the Definitive Edition:


This campaign is played as the Byzantines.

In the HD Edition:

In the Definitive Edition:


In the HD Edition:

Battles of the Forgotten[]

  • Cyprus
    • In the HD Edition:
      • Isaac Komnenos - Enemy
      • Cyprus - Enemy
    • In the Definitive Edition:
      • Nicosia - Enemy
      • Nicosia Fleet - Enemy
      • Nicosia Scouts - Enemy
    • In both versions:
      • Limassol - Enemy
  • Honfoglalás
    • Byzantines - Ally
  • Bapheus
    • Byzantine Empire - Enemy

Tariq ibn Ziyad[]



Kotyan Khan[]

The Hautevilles[]


Unique unit[]

CataphractIcon-DE.png Cataphract: Heavy cavalry that excels at combat against infantry

Unique technologies[]

CastleAgeUnique.png Greek Fire: Gives Fire Ships +1 range.
Unique-tech-imperial.jpg Logistica: Gives Cataphracts trample damage and +6 attack against infantry.

Civilization bonuses[]

Team bonus[]

Monks heal 100% faster.


The Age of Kings[]

The Conquerors[]

  • With patch 1.0b, Town Watch is free and researched instantly.
  • Logistica introduced. It costs 1,000 food and 600 gold.
  • Team bonus: Monks heal 50% faster.
  • Cataphracts train in 20 seconds.
  • Cataphracts have a Rate of Fire of 1.8 (1.7 for Elite).
  • Cataphracts receive +12 (+16 for Elite) bonus defense against anti-cavalry attacks.

The Forgotten[]

The African Kingdoms[]

Definitive Edition[]

  • Architecture style changed from Middle Eastern to Mediterranean.
  • With update 39284, the Elite Cataphract upgrade costs 1,200 food and 800 gold, and Logistica costs 800 food and 600 gold.

Dawn of the Dukes[]

In-game dialogue language[]

The Byzantine units speak Latin, which they share with the Italians, and the Briton Monks and Kings. Historically, the Byzantine Empire ditched Latin as an administrative language in the 7th century, in favor of Medieval Greek, their most commonly spoken language. The Latin language itself evolved into the slightly different Medieval Latin. There are some obvious mistakes in the unit voice lines, such as asking "I command?" when other civilizations use "Your command?" (imperas for "You command"), or using "Hunted" instead of "Hunter" (venor for "I hunt" and venator for "Hunter") or "To hunt" (venari for "To hunt"). Byzantine units also differ in that they talk in the first person, while most civilizations use the third person or the infinitive.

  • Select 1 Ain? - Yes?
  • Select 2 Salve - Hello
  • Select 3 Presto - I'm ready
  • Select 4 Impero? - I command?
  • Task 1 Sane - Certainly
  • Task 2 Ain - Yes
  • Task 3 Correctus - Right
  • Task 4 Ago - I do
  • Build Condo - I build
  • Chop Caedo - I cut
  • Farm Colo - I cultivate
  • Fish Capto - I catch
  • Forage Pabulo - I forage
  • Hunt Venatus - Hunted
  • Mine Fodio - I dig
  • Repair Reficio - I repair
  • Attack Pugno! - I fight! (not used)
  • Select 1 Ain? - Yes?
  • Select 2 Presto - I'm ready
  • Select 3 Impero? - I command?
  • Move 1 Ain - Yes
  • Move 2 Ago - I do
  • Move 3 Sane - Certainly
  • Attack 1 Pugno! - I fight!
  • Attack 2 Comitta!/Comita!/Comittam! - Commit!/(You) Follow!/I will commit!
  • Attack 3 Porro! - Forward!
  • Attack 4 Deleo! - I destruct!
  • Select 1 Ain? - Yes?
  • Select 2 Salve - Hello
  • Select 3 Presto - I'm ready
  • Select 4 Impero? - I command?
  • Move 1 Sane - Certainly
  • Move 2 Ain - Yes
  • Move 3 Correctus - Right
  • Move 4 Ago - I do
  • Select 1 Ain? - Yes?
  • Select 2 Salve - Hello
  • Select 3 Presto - I'm ready
  • Select 4 Impero? - I command?
  • Move 1 Sane - Certainly
  • Move 2 Ain - Yes
  • Move 3 Correctus - Right
  • Move 4 Ago - I do

AI player names[]

When playing a random map game against the computer, the player may encounter any of the following Byzantine AI characters:

  • Anastasios I Dikoros (Ἀναστάσιος I Δίκορος; 431-518): Byzantine emperor from 491-518. Reformer of administration and internal affairs, gained popularity by lowering taxes. Built the Anastasian Wall to protect Constantinople from Huns, Slavs and Bulgars; reinforced the Persian border.
  • Basil the Macedonian (Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών; 811-886): Byzantine emperor from 867-886. Born a peasant, he rose in the Imperial court and assassinated the emperor to become emperor himself. Turned out to be one of the greatest Byzantine emperors.
  • Basil Boioannes (Βασίλειος Βοϊωάννης; 1017-1027): was the Byzantine catapan of Italy and one of the greatest Byzantine generals of his time. His accomplishments enabled the Empire to reestablish itself as a major force in southern Italy after centuries of decline.
  • Belisarius (Βελισάριος; 505-565): Flavius Belisarius, legendary general of Justinian I. Conquered territories in Italy, Dalmatia, Africa and southern Hispania from the Vandals and Goths.
  • Emp. Alexius IV (Αυτοκράτορας Αλέξιος Δ'; 1182-1204): Byzantine emperor from 1203-1204. Managed to escape to the Holy Roman Empire after his father was overthrown in a coup. He redirected the Fourth Crusade to Constantinople to claim his throne, but failed to meet his promises to the crusader nations and was deeply unpopular with the citizenry. Eventually imprisoned and strangled.
  • Emp. Anastasius (Αυτοκράτορας Ἀναστάσιος): The only Byzantine Emperor named Anastasius was Anastasios I Dikoros above.
  • Emp. Constantine (Αυτοκράτορας Κωνσταντῖνος): Eleven emperors were named Constantine, including the first Christian Roman Emperor (306-337), founder of Constantinople, and the last, who disappeared when the Ottomans took the city in 1453.
  • Emp. Justinian (Αυτοκράτορας Ἰουστινιανός; 482-565) : Byzantine emperor from 527-565. Sought to revive the Roman Empire’s greatness by conquering former territories in the western Mediterranean, while Byzantine culture and law flourished.
  • Emp. Leo VI (Αυτοκράτορας Λέων ΣΤ΄; 866-912): “The Wise”, Byzantine emperor from 886-912. A prolific writer, wrote about law, politics, theology and poetry, while his fortune in wars was mixed.
  • Emp. Mauricius (Αυτοκράτορας Μαυρίκιος; 539-602): Byzantine emperor from 582-602. Victorious in the war against Persia gaining much of Armenia and Georgia, and solidified territory in the Balkans and the western Mediterranean. Executed by the usurper Phocas.
  • Emp. Michael V (Αυτοκράτορας Μιχαήλ Ε΄; 1015-1041): Byzantine emperor for four months. Adoptive son of Empress Zoe, she helped him to become heir to the throne. Determined to rule on his own, he banished Zoe, after which the population revolted and Zoe (with her sister) was reinstalled as empress, while Michael died shortly after.
  • Emp. Romanus II (Αυτοκράτορας Ρωμανός Β΄; 938-963): Byzantine emperor from 959-963. Recaptured Crete from the Muslims, captured Arab territory in the east and defended the Balkans from the Magyars. Suddenly became ill on a hunting expedition and died.
  • Emp. Tiberius III (Αυτοκράτορας Τιβέριος Γʹ): Byzantine emperor from 698-705. Former Germanic naval officer, decided to ignore Africa and Carthage and focus his efforts on containing the Arab threat in the east.
  • Emperor Romanos II (Αυτοκράτορας Ρωμανός Β΄; 938-963): See Emp. Romanus II.
  • General Manuel Comnenus (Μανουήλ Κομνηνός; 1118-1180): Byzantine emperor from 1143-1180. Sought the return of the glory of the Byzantine Empire: Made alliances with the pope, held campaigns in Hungary and Sicily and also took part in the Second Crusade.
  • Heraclius the Elder (Ηράκλειος ο Πρεσβύτερος; ?-610): Byzantine general. Fought battles against the Persians and quelled an Armenian revolt. Appointed Exarch of Africa, he then helped his son to overthrow the usurper Phocas, but died soon after.
  • Michael the Stammerer (Μιχαήλ ὁ Τραυλός; 770-829): Michael II the Amorian, Byzantine emperor from 820-829. Rose from soldier up to high rank and conspired to assassinate the emperor to become emperor himself. Lost Crete to the Saracens and could not prevent the Muslim conquest of Sicily.


The Byzantines took their name from Byzantium, an ancient city on the Bosphorus, the strategic waterway linking the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea. The Roman Emperor Constantine had renamed this city Constantinople in the fourth century and made it a sister capital of his empire. This eastern partition of the Roman Empire outlived its western counterpart by a thousand years, defending Europe against invasions from the east by Persians, Arabs, and Turks. The Byzantines persevered because Constantinople was well defended by walls and the city could be supplied by sea. At their zenith in the sixth century, the Byzantines covered much of the territories of the original Roman Empire, lacking only the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal), Gaul (modern France), and Britain. The Byzantines also held Syria, Egypt, and Palestine, but by the middle of the seventh century they had lost them to the Arabs. From then on their empire consisted mainly of the Balkans and modern Turkey.

The first great Byzantine emperor was Justinian I (482 to 565). His ambition was to restore the old Roman Empire and he nearly succeeded. His instrument was the greatest general of the age, Belisarius, who crisscrossed the empire defeating Persians to the East, Vandals in North Africa, Ostrogoths in Italy, and Bulgars and Slavs in the Balkans. In addition to military campaigns, Justinian laid the foundation for the future by establishing a strong legal and administrative system and by defending the Christian Church.

The Byzantine economy was the richest in Europe for many centuries because Constantinople was ideally sited on trade routes between Asia, Europe, the Black Sea, and the Aegean Sea. It was an important destination point for the Silk Road from China. The nomisma, the principal Byzantine gold coin, was the standard for money throughout the Mediterranean for 800 years. Constantinople’s strategic position eventually attracted the envy and animosity of the Italian city-states.

A key strength of the Byzantine Empire was its generally superior army that drew on the best elements of the Roman, Greek, Gothic, and Middle Eastern experience in war. The core of the army was a shock force of heavy cavalry supported by both light infantry (archers) and heavy infantry (armored swordsmen). The army was organized into units and drilled in tactics and maneuvers. Officers received an education in military history and theory. Although outnumbered usually by masses of untrained warriors, it prevailed thanks to intelligent tactics and good discipline. The army was backed by a network of spies and secret agents that provided information about enemy plans and could be used to bribe or otherwise deflect aggressors.

The Byzantine navy kept the sea-lanes open for trade and kept supply lines free so the city could not be starved into submission when besieged. In the eighth century, a land and sea attack by Arabs was defeated largely by a secret weapon, Greek fire. This chemical weapon, its composition now unknown, was a sort of liquid napalm that could be sprayed from a hose. The Arab navy was devastated at sea by Greek fire.

In the seventh and eighth centuries, the Arabs overran Egypt, the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain, removing these areas permanently from Byzantine control. A Turkish victory at Manzikert in 1071 led to the devastation of Asia Minor, the empire’s most important source of grain, cattle, horses, and soldiers. In 1204 Crusaders led by the Doge of Venice used treachery to sack and occupy Constantinople.

In the fourteenth century, the Turks invaded Europe, capturing Adrianople and bypassing Constantinople. They settled the Balkans in large numbers and defeated a large crusader army at Nicopolis in 1396. In May 1453, Turkish sultan Mehmet II captured a weakly defended Constantinople with the aid of heavy cannon. The fall of the city brought the Byzantine Empire to an end.

Civilization name[]

Historically, the Byzantines referred to their empire as the "Roman Empire" or the "Kingdom of the Romans" (Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων), "Romania" (Greek: Ῥωμανία meaning "Land of the Romans"), "Graecia" (Greek: Γραικία meaning "Land of the Greeks") and "Rhōmais" (Greek: Ῥωμαΐς). They likewise referred to themselves as "Romans", "Greeks" and/or "Hellenes" (Romaioi, Graikoi and Ellines in Greek respectively) since they were the political continuation of the Roman Empire in the east, as well as the direct heirs and guardians of Hellenic civilization. They were also known as "Greeks" in Western Europe due to the Greek language they spoke. Both the terms "Eastern Roman Empire" and "Byzantines" are modern historiographical terms that refer to the empire and its inhabitants respectively and were developed years after the fall of the empire's capital, Constantinople, in 1453 due to the invasions of the Ottoman Turks.


  • The Byzantine civilization icon in the Definitive Edition is a kite shield like the one used by the Cataphract. It bears the tetragrammic cross, which was used as emblem by the Palaiologos dynasty from the mid-13th century.
  • The user interface image in the Definitive Edition displays a Byzantine double-headed eagle.
  • After changing to the Mediterranean architecture set in the Definitive Edition, the Byzantines are the only civilization with European architecture that can train Camel Riders.
  • The Byzantines and the Teutons are the only "defensive" civilizations in The Age Of Kings. Their "defensive" point is not changed in the later expansions.
  • The Byzantines are one of the four civilzations that have access to Paladins, but not Bloodlines (the other being Burgundians, Celts and Franks, although the later have a civilization bonus that gives their cavalry units +20% HP), and one of the two civilizations that have access to Camel Riders without Bloodlines (the other being the Ethiopians).
  • Despite being a continuation of the Roman Empire, and using Scorpions and Onagers despite their disuse in former Western Roman territories, they do not gain access to Siege Onagers or Heavy Scorpions.
  • The Byzantines are a very effective civilization for new players and beginners, mostly due to having a very open tech tree in all stages of the game for various areas and strategies.
  • Also, they are one of only two civilizations that have both Paladins and Arbalesters. However, they lack both Bloodlines and Blast Furnace for Paladins, making them less powerful compared with the other civilization, the Magyars.
  • Despite being the only civilization with Paladin, Arbalester and Siege Rams, which are essential in team games, the Byzantines are the worst one in this case. Their winning rate in team games is the lowest, probably because their main strength is trash units, which is not as useful as in 1vs1 games. They have no significant advantage to their archers, mediocre Stable units (no Bloodlines and Blast Furnace), which leads to them being an unwise choice to be in pocket. They also lack an economy advantage to boom.
    • Conversely, the Byzantines have a higher winrate in lower ELO and a lower winrate in higher ranks. This is mainly because their additional HP on buildings makes it easy for newer players to play defensively and boom (combined with their diverse tech tree), while their noticeable weaknesses (such as their focus on "counter" trash units and lack of early-game economic bonus) makes their defensive playstyle more punishing in higher ranks by playing a civilization with a stronger economic bonus with a strong late-game.


Video overview[]