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East of the Indian subcontinent, a vibrant and learned culture flourished in the jungles and river valleys. Ascend to power, quash a treacherous rebellion, and restore the Burmese monarchy to its former glory. Assemble the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia with a legion of Battle Elephants that can demolish the most powerful of defenses. The Burmese unique unit is the Arambai, a ranged cavalry unit with a deadly but inaccurate attack.

The Burmese' civilization music theme in the Definitive Edition

The Burmese are a Southeast Asian civilization in Age of Empires II HD: Rise of the Rajas. They focus on Monks and elephants.

The Burmese are based on the Pagan Empire and the later Toungoo Empire, the latter of which are the largest empire in Southeastern Asia. The region around Burma is well known for their wide mountain ranges with lush valleys and a vast amount of forests. To reflect on this, the Burmese get free upgrades at the Lumber Camp. Buddhism played a huge role for the Burmese, teaching the importance of humbleness and not valuing any wealth or luxuries. This is highlighted with their cheaper Monastery technologies as well as their team bonus that reveals the location of Relics on the map.

The Burmese army were feared horsemen in the region that were able to hold their own against the Mongol invasion for a while despite their eventual defeat. In particular, the 18th-century Burmese cavalry included the deadly foreign dart-throwers, who are reflected with their unique unit, the Arambai, and one of their unique technologies, Manipur Cavalry.

The Burmese were also known for their use of heavily armored elephants, which is reflected with their other unique technology, Howdah, giving Battle Elephants extra melee armor and pierce armor. Finally, the Burmese foot soldiers were trained martial artists skilled in martial arts such as the Aka and Bando, which is reflected with their infantry getting extra attack with every Age advancement.


Standing out for the Burmese are their excellent cavalry, most notably Battle Elephants, their strong infantry, and their great Monks. On the downside, their archers are close to being unusable without key upgrades like Thumb Ring, Arbalester, and Leather Archer Armor. The latter is especially unfortunate as their otherwise strong unique unit, the Arambai, direly misses it. However, it remains a very strong unit and is one of the Burmese's selling points. Their navy and siege weapons are average with a few missing upgrades that do not too much harm overall. The defensive structures are also rather average, but their economy is strong.

Campaign appearances[]

The Burmese have a campaign devoted to their civilization: Bayinnaung. They also appear in:

Gajah Mada[]

Suryavarman I[]


Unique unit[]

Arambaiicon-DE.png Arambai: Cavalry with powerful ranged attack

Unique technologies[]

UniqueTechCastle-DE.png Howdah: Gives Battle Elephants +1/+2 armor.
UniqueTechImperial-DE.png Manipur Cavalry: Gives cavalry units +5 attack against archers.

Civilization bonuses[]

Team bonus[]

Relics are visible on the map from the game start.


Rise of the Rajas[]

  • Initially, Howdah costs 200f/300w and gives Battle Elephants +1/+2 armor. With patch 5.7, Howdah costs 400f/300w and gives Battle Elephants +1/+1 armor.
  • The Arambai has a Rate of Fire of 2.0.
  • Initially, (Elite) Arambai have 18 (20) attack and move at a speed of 1.35. With patch 5.7, they have 17 (19) attack and move at a speed of 1.3.
  • Initially, Elite Arambai have +2 armor against anti-cavalry archer attacks. With patch 5.7, that bonus armor was removed.
  • Initially, Arambai cost 50 wood and 60 gold. With patch 5.8, they cost 80 wood and 60 gold.
  • Initially, Manipur Cavalry gives cavalry units and Arambai +6 attack against buildings. With patch 5.3, the bonus is spread over the two building classes (building and standard building) equally so Architecture does not cancel the effect completely anymore.

Definitive Edition[]

Lords of the West[]

  • With update 44725, (Elite) Arambai have 12 (15) attack. The Arambai has a Rate of Fire of 2.0. Stray shots do full (instead of half) damage to the unit they hit.

Dawn of the Dukes[]

  • With update 51737, Howdah grants +1/+2 armor to Battle Elephants again.
  • With update 56005, Manipur Cavalry no longer affects Arambai, and provides +5 attack against archers instead of +6 attack against buildings.

In-game dialogue language[]

Burmese units speak their namesake, a Sino-Tibetan language (related to the language spoken by the Chinese and Tibetic languages) written with a script descended from Brahmic, either Kadamba or Pallava.

  • Select 1 Hou'ke? (ဟုတ်ကဲ့) – Yes?
  • Select 2 Hae (ဟေ့) – Hey/Hi
  • Select 3 Athin bai (အသင့်ပဲ) – Ready
  • Select 4 Amein bhe pa? (အမိန့်ပေးပါ) – Which order?
  • Task 1 Hou'ke (ဟုတ်ကဲ့) – Yes
  • Task 2 Mhaan ba (မှန်ပ) – Right
  • Task 3 Kyawantaw swarrmai (ကျွန်တော်သွားမည်) – I will go
  • Female Task 4 Swa do mè (သွားတော့မယ်) – I'm going
  • Male Task 4 Khu lote lite maal (ခုလုပ်လိုက်မယ်) – Let's do it now
  • Build Sout lote thai thamarr (ဆောက်လုပ်ရေးသမား) – Builder
  • Chop Thit khote thamarr (သစ်ခုတ်သမား) – Lumberjack
  • Female Farm Lay thamarr (လယ်သမား) – Farmer (female)
  • Male Farm Jhait thain thamarr (ရိပ်သိန်းသမား) – Fruit gatherer (male)
  • Fish Ngarr phan thamarr (ငါးဖမ်းသမား) – Fisherman
  • Female Forage Lay thamarr (လယ်သမား) – Farmer (female)
  • Male Forage Jhait thain thamarr (ရိပ်သိန်းသမား) – Fruit gatherer (male)
  • Hunt Mowt soe (မုဆိုး) – Hunter
  • Mine Mine tuu thamarr (မိုင်းတူးသမား) – Excavator
  • Repair Pyupyin thamarr (ပြုပြင်သမား) – Repairer
  • Select 1 Hou'ke? (ဟုတ်ကဲ့) – Yes?
  • Select 2 Ameint taw a tine par (အမိန့်ပေးပါ) – Awaiting your command
  • Select 3 Amein bhe pa? (အမိန့်ပေးပါ) – Which order?
  • Move 1 Narr lae par taal (နားလည်ပါတယ်) – I understand
  • Move 2 Khu lote litemaal (ကျွန်တော်လုပ်လိုက်မယ်) – I'll do it now
  • Move 3 Hou'ke? (ဟုတ်ကဲ့) – Yes?
  • Attack 1 Tet khya! (တက်ကြ) – Advance!
  • Attack 2 Ngartote titemaal! (ငါတို့တိုက်မယ်) – We will fight!
  • Attack 3
  • Select 1 Hou'ke? (ဟုတ်ကဲ့) – Yes?
  • Select 2
  • Select 3
  • Select 4 Phaya Tayar Sangha (ဘုရား၊တရား၊သံဃာ) - The Buddha, (His) Teachings, and The Order of Monks
  • Move 1 Khu lote litemaal ခုလုပ်လိုက်မယ် – I'll do it now
  • Move 2 Hou'ke (ဟုတ်ကဲ့) – Yes
  • Move 3
  • Move 4 Khyeth kyinn partaay ချက်ချင်းပါပဲ - Immediately
  • Select 1
  • Select 2
  • Select 3
  • Select 4
  • Move 1
  • Move 2
  • Move 3
  • Move 4

AI player names[]

When playing a random map game against the computer, the player may encounter any of the following Burmese AI characters:

  • Anawrahta (အနော်ရထာ): The founder of the Pagan Empire. Considered the father of the Burmese nation, Anawrahta turned a small principality in the dry zone of Upper Burma into the first Burmese Empire that formed the basis of modern-day Burma.
  • Bayinnaung (ဘုရင့်နောင်): Bayinnaung Kyawhtin Nawrahta was king of the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma from 1550 to 1581. During his 31-year reign, which has been called the "greatest explosion of human energy ever seen in Burma," Bayinnaung assembled the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, which included much of modern-day Burma, Chinese Shan states, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Manipur, and Siam.
  • Binnya Dala (ဗညားဒလ): A court title used at the courts of the Hanthawaddy Kingdom, Toungoo Dynasty and Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom. Possibly refers to General of Hanthawaddy defeated in the Battle of Naungyo in 1538 or Chief Minister and general of Toungoo (1559–1573).
  • Kyansittha (ကျန်စစ်သား): King of Pagan dynasty of Burma from 1084 to 1112/13, and is considered one of the greatest Burmese monarchs.
  • Min Bin (မင်းပင်): King of Arakan from 1531 to 1554, "whose reign witnessed the country's emergence as a major power". Aided by Portuguese mercenaries and their firearms, his powerful navy and army pushed the boundaries of the kingdom deep into Bengal, where coins bearing his name and styling him sultan were struck, and even interfered in the affairs of mainland Burma.
  • Mingyi Nyo (မင်းကြီးညို): The founder of Toungoo dynasty of Burma. Under his 45-year leadership (1485–1530), Toungoo (Taungoo), grew from a remote backwater vassal state of Ava Kingdom to a small but stable independent kingdom.
  • Minkhaung (ပထမ မင်းခေါင်): A Burmese royal title, and may refer to monarchs (kings Minkhaung I/Minkhaung II/Minkhaung of Mrauk-U/Minkhaung of Prome) or viceroys of Toungoo (Minkhaung I of Toungoo/Minkhaung II of Toungoo) in late AoE II era.
  • Nanda (နန္ဒဘုရင်): King of Toungoo Dynasty of Burma from 1581 to 1599. He presided over the collapse of Toungoo Empire, the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia.
  • Narapati (နရပတိ): A Burmese royal title, and may refer to: Narapati I of Ava, King of Ava, r. 1442–68; Narapati II of Ava, King of Ava, r. 1501–27; Narapati of Prome, King of Prome, r. 1532–39; Narapati III of Ava, King of Ava, r. 1545–51; and Narapati IV of Ava, King of Ava, r. 1551–55; in AoE II era.
  • Sithu (စည်သူ): A Burmese royal title used in the days of Burmese monarchy and may refer to Sithu I/Sithu II/Sithu III/Sithu IV, kings of Pagan, Sithu of Pinya and Sithu Kyawhtin.
  • Swasawke (စွာစော်ကဲ): King of Ava from 1367 to 1400. He reestablished central authority in Upper Burma for the first time since the fall of the Pagan Empire in the 1280s. He essentially founded the Ava Kingdom that would dominate Upper Burma for the next two centuries.
  • Tabinshwehti (တပင်‌ရွှေထီး): Tabinshwehti was king of Toungoo Dynasty of Burma from 1530 to 1550, and the founder of Toungoo Empire. His military campaigns created the largest kingdom in Burma since the fall of Pagan Empire in 1287.


  • Before the Definitive Edition the middle of the navigation bar showed a green peafowl, which is the royal symbol of Burmese kingdoms since the 11th century.
    • This symbol is also used as the civilization icon of the Burmese in the Definitive Edition.
  • The Burmese are the only civilization that lack Leather Archer Armor at the Blacksmith.
  • While they primarily represent the Pagan Kingdom and the Taungoo/Toungoo dynasty, they also draw influence from modern northeastern India, namely the state of Manipur, reflected in their use of the Arambai and the Manipur Cavalry unique technology. This is slightly ironic, as the Kingdom of Manipur often fought against the Burmese Empire, although also a bit justified: in the 18th century, Manipur horsemen often fought in Burmese armies and constituted important portions of the Burmese cavalry. Ironically, the Burmese technology Manipur Cavalry could have potentially come from the deadly raids the Manipuris made into Burmese lands in the 18th century when they ravaged much of the countryside, destroying villages and pagodas.
    • The Burmese civilization icon is based on the coat of arms of the Konbaung dynasty (actually 18th century).
  • The civilization name is based on Burmese ဗမာ Bama, colloquial form of the ethnic name မြန်မာ Mranma, of unknown origin; French linguist Michel Ferlus included this ethonym in the South-East Asia word-family *-ra:ŋ "human being". However, the term later referred to all ethnic groups within the boundaries of British Burma, including those ruled by the Shan, Mon and Rakhine kingdoms.
  • Before patch 5.7, the Burmese were considered the most powerful civilization in land maps. Their unique unit was more powerful and cheaper, making them easier to mass, and they had anti-cavalry archer armor and were slightly faster, making common units harder to deal with. Also, at that time, the Battle Elephant upgrade was cheaper, and their unique technology, Howdah, gave 1 additional pierce armor, which made Burmese Battle Elephants even stronger. Nowadays, the Burmese are viewed as a below-average civilization, mostly due to their heavy reliance on their unique unit, the Arambai, but still had a fierce reputation on closed maps because of a popular strategy which consists of creating a large group of them with two Castles in a short time and overrun enemy bases and destroy Town Centers in seconds. Some of its stats were severely toned down in update 44725. This was a devastating nerf, since Arambais are their backbone for them to have a chance to crush their opponent. They have no concrete unit to fight against massed archers, since they do not even have Leather Archer Armor, which makes both Arambai and Skirmishers very prone to arrow shots. Their Battle Elephant is also too slow to catch up. They are now one of the weakest civilization with the lowest picking rates. The restoring of the effect for Howdah in update 51737 and the new effect, replacing the former one for Manipur Cavalry in update 56005 is probably to solve this problem.
  • The Burmese are similar to the Spanish before the nerf in update 44725, as both civilizations' main backbone is their unique unit and they are heavily relying on it. Both have strong cavalry and Monks and average Siege Weapons. Both lack decent archers. The biggest difference is that the Spanish have a more versatile navy, while the Burmese have great buffs to their infantry. Also, the Burmese have economic advantages that the Spanish lack.
  • It is possible that the Burmese had access to the Siege Onager during the beta.


Since prehistoric times, the fertile plains, navigable rivers, and the protection of surrounding mountains have attracted many ethnic groups to settle in the area of present-day Myanmar (Burma). Between the end of the first millennium BC and the ninth century AD, a multitude of city-states emerged as a result of intensified rice cultivation and growing Indo-Chinese trade. Similar to other early Southeast Asian polities, culture became influenced by the interaction with India. Most of the urban civilizations of Myanmar gradually converted to Buddhism and built many temples. These tall cylindrical temples, called stupas, became the prototype for later religious architecture. For example, the famous 11th century Shwezigon Pagoda was based on this design.

During the Middle Ages, two states succeeded in uniting the different polities of Myanmar into one powerful empire. In 1044, Anawrahta Minsaw (1044-1077) ascended the throne of the small Pagan kingdom in Upper Myanmar. After consolidating the state’s economic power through the building of extensive irrigation networks, Anawrahta conquered most of Upper and Lower Myanmar. Around 1200, the Pagan empire (1044-1297) reached its zenith: the Burmese language became the lingua franca, laws were codified, and the territory reached its largest extent.

The Pagan empire had only a limited standing army in their capital, called the brave ones, but additional troops were conscripted during times of war. The main body of the army consisted of infantry. A number of war elephants, the elite unit of the army and a symbol of power, were allotted to each force. The elephants were often equipped with a Howdah, a sort of carriage, from which multiple archers could shoot. In addition, the Burmese deployed a sizable cavalry force. Soldiers fought with a variety of weapons, including swords, spears, bows, and darts. Despite its many victories in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Pagan army was eventually defeated by the Mongols in 1285. Without powerful leadership, the empire soon disintegrated into rivaling states.

By the fourteenth century, four states had filled the void of the Pagan Empire though their rule was highly contested and vassals often rebelled. While these four states waged war among each other, the small kingdom of Toungoo profited by welcoming refugees, expanding its own territory, and raiding neighboring cities. In 1510, King Mingyinyo (1485-1530) declared independence. Under his successors, King Tabinshwehti (1530-1550) and especially King Bayinnaung (1550-1581), Toungoo expanded from a regional kingdom into the largest empire of Southeast Asia, encompassing much of present-day Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos. Extensive use of firearms and the recruitment of Portuguese artillery gave the Burmese a technological advantage in battle.

This explosive growth, however, left the Toungoo Empire ungovernable. Shortly after the death of Bayinnaung, different states rebelled. Instead of consolidating the kingdom’s core region, Bayinnaung’s son, King Nanda (1581-1599), desperately tried to hold on to the large empire. The failure of multiple campaigns against the Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya weakened Toungoo’s military strength. Failed harvests due to climatic cooling weakened the imperial economy. In 1599, Toungoo’s capital was besieged and burned to the ground, marking the end of the second Burmese Empire.


Video overview[]