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Traverse Central Europe’s tall mountains and verdant forests as you arm hardy warriors with advanced weapons and lead them to victory against insurmountable odds. The Bohemian unique units are the Hussite Wagon, a deadly forerunner of the modern tank, and the Houfnice, a powerful upgrade to the Bombard Cannon.
—Description[1]

The Bohemians' civilization music theme in the Definitive Edition

The Bohemians are an Eastern European civilization introduced in Age of Empires II: Definitive Edition - Dawn of the Dukes. They focus on gunpowder units and Monks. Their unique units are the Hussite Wagon and the Houfnice.

The Bohemians established their own duchy around central Europe which would later become the kingdom of Bohemia. The Ore Mountains in Bohemia was rich in resources and the mountains were mined for tin and silver. This is reflected on their free Mining Camp upgrades, which boosts their miners in the early game. Thanks to their rich resources of the Ore Mountains, the Kingdom of Bohemia served as an attraction for various merchants and traders alike across Europe, which is reflected on their team bonus of Markets working faster.

While the Bohemians were predominately Catholic, the early 14th century saw various social reformations of the Roman Catholic Church in Bohemia led by the Hussites, which serves the predecessor to the Protestant Reformation. Such reformations led to the diminished authority of the Catholic Church in Bohemia while establishing Bohemia as a cultural center in Central Europe for artists, scholars, and craftsmen alike. This is reflected with their civilization bonus of Blacksmiths, Monasteries, and Universities costing less wood; and their namesake Imperial Age unique technology, Hussite Reforms, where their Monastery technologies and Monks cost is changed to Food. Many of the dedicated followers of the Hussite movement were peasants and the middle class, which is why their Villagers are affected by Fervor and Sanctity.

Much like the Burgundians, the Bohemians were also one of the first European kingdoms to utilize gunpowder in warfare. However, the Bohemians adopted advanced tactics and strategies with gunpowder thanks to the leadership of Jan Zizka during the Hussite Wars, which such tactics served as a predecessor to warfare seen in the early modern period (i.e. Age of Empires III timeframe). This is reflected on their civilization bonus of being able to train Hand Cannoneers and research Chemistry an age earlier than other civilizations. Their Castle Age unique tech, Wagenburg Tactics, also reflects on the adaptation of gunpowder warfare with increased movement speed for gunpowder units. Their unique units, the Hussite Wagon and the Houfnice, serve as the medieval precursor to the modern tank and howitzer respectively. Spears were commonly used among Bohemian soldiers such the famous spearhead with their namesake, which is why their Spearman line deals more bonus damage against cavalry.

Despite the vast resources from the Ore Mountains, the geography of hills and mountains in Bohemia is ill-suited to raise horses. This is why the Bohemian cavalry is considered to be one of the worst, as well as being the only non-American civilization to not have access to cavalry archers in their tech tree.

Characteristics[]

Unique unit[]

Unique technologies[]

Civilization bonuses[]

Team bonus[]

Campaign appearances[]

The Bohemians have a campaign devoted to their civilization: Jan Zizka. They also appear in:

Barbarossa[]

Genghis Khan[]

Jadwiga[]

Jan Zizka[]

This campaign is played as the Bohemians

  • The Iron Lords
    • The Iron Lords - Enemy
    • Sedlec - Enemy
    • Pisek - Enemy
    • Prachatice - Enemy
    • Tabor - Ally
  • Warrior of God
    • Royalists - Enemy
    • Prague - Enemy
    • Neutral Praguers - Ally
    • Tabor - Ally

In-game dialogue language[]

Bohemian units in-game speak modern Czech (Czech: Český jazyk), a Western Slavic language that belongs to Czech-Slovak language family. Until the early 20th century, the language was known as Bohemian.

Villager
  • Select 1 Ano? – Yes?
  • Select 2 Zdař bůh – God's greetings
  • Female Select 3 Jsem připravena - I'm ready (feminine)
  • Male Select 3 Jsem připraven - I'm ready (masculine)
  • Select 4 Co žádáš? - What are you asking for?
  • Task 1 Ano – Yes
  • Task 2 Pravdu díš - You're right
  • Task 3 Vykonám to - I'll do it
  • Task 4 Budiž - So be it
  • Build Stavím - I'm building
  • Chop Ščepu dřevo - I'm cutting wood
  • Farm Ořu zemi - I plow the land
  • Fish Chytám ryby - I'm catching fish
  • Forage Sběrám - I'm collecting
  • Hunt Lovím zvěř - I'm hunting game
  • Mine Robím v dolu - I'm working in a mine
  • Repair Opravuju - I'm repairing
Military
  • Select 1 Ano? – Yes?
  • Select 2 K Vašim službám - At your service
  • Select 3 Co přikazuješ? - What are your commands?
  • Move 1 Rozumím - I understand
  • Move 2 Jak žádáš - As you command
  • Move 3 Ano, pane - Yes, sir
  • Attack 1 Do útoku! - To attack!
  • Attack 2 Bojujme! - Let's fight!
  • Attack 3 Do zbraně! - To arms!
Monk
  • Select 1 Ano? – Yes?
  • Select 2 Co po mně žádáš? - What are you asking for?
  • Select 3 K Vašim službám - At your service
  • Select 4 Ve jménu Hospodina - In Lord's name
  • Move 1 Vykonám to - I'll do it
  • Move 2 Ano – Yes
  • Move 3 Zajisté - Certainly
  • Move 4 Již kráčím - I'm already walking
King
  • Select 1 Ber co Ti nabízím - Take what I'm offering you
  • Select 2 Čeho si žádáš? - What do you want?
  • Select 3 Proč mě rušíš? - Why are you interrupting me?
  • Select 4 Hlásím se do služby - I report for duty
  • Move 1 Učiním co žádáš - I'll do what you want
  • Move 2 Z mé milosti - By my grace
  • Move 3 Jak jsi žádal - As you commanded
  • Move 4 Učiním to - I'll do it

AI player names[]

When playing a random map game against the computer, the player may encounter any of the following Bohemian AI characters:

  • Svatopluk I: A ruler of Great Moravia, which attained its maximum territorial expansion during his reign (870–871, 871–894).
  • Wenceslaus the Good: Wenceslaus I (Czech: Václav [ˈvaːtslaf] ; c. 911 – September 28, 935), Wenceslas I or Václav the Good was the duke (kníže) of Bohemia from 921 until his assassination in 935. His younger brother, Boleslaus the Cruel, was complicit in the murder. His martyrdom and the popularity of several biographies gave rise to a reputation for heroic virtue that resulted in his elevation to sainthood. He was posthumously declared to be a king and came to be seen as the patron saint of the Czech state. He is the subject of the well-known "Good King Wenceslas", a carol for Saint Stephen's Day.
  • Boleslaus the Cruel: Boleslaus I (Czech: Boleslav I. Ukrutný) (915 – 972), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was ruler (kníže, "duke") of the Duchy of Bohemia from 935 to his death. He is notorious for the murder of his elder brother Wenceslaus, through which he became duke. Despite his complicity in this fratricide, Boleslaus is generally respected by Czech historians as an energetic ruler who significantly strengthened the Bohemian state and expanded its territory. His accomplishments include significant economic development due to an expansion in trade, the introduction of silver mining and the minting of the first local coinage, the Prague denarius.
  • Bretislaus I: Bretislav I (Czech: Břetislav I.; 1002/1005 – 10 January 1055), known as the "Bohemian Achilles", of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 1034 until his death.
  • Vratislaus II: Vratislaus (or Wratislaus) II (Czech: Vratislav II.) (c. 1032 – 14 January 1092), the son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt, was the first King of Bohemia as of 15 June 1085, his royal title granted as a lifetime honorific from Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV that did not establish a hereditary monarchy. Before his elevation to the royal dignity, Vratislaus had ruled Bohemia as duke since 1061. On his father's death in 1055, Vratislaus became duke of Olomouc, whereas his older brother became Duke of Bohemia as Spytihněv II. He fell out with his brother and was exiled to Hungary. Vratislaus regained the ducal throne of Olomouc with Hungarian assistance and eventually reconciled with his brother, then succeeded him as duke of Bohemia when he died in 1061.
  • Ottokar I: Ottokar I (Czech: Přemysl I. Otakar; c. 1155 – 1230) was Duke of Bohemia periodically beginning in 1192, then acquired the title King of Bohemia, first in 1198 from Philip of Swabia, later in 1203 from Otto IV of Brunswick and in 1212 from Frederick II. He was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty.
  • Wenceslaus the One-Eyed: Wenceslaus I (Czech: Václav I.; c. 1205 – 23 September 1253), called One-Eyed, was King of Bohemia from 1230 to 1253. Wenceslaus was a son of Ottokar I of Bohemia and his second wife Constance of Hungary.
  • Premysl Ottokar II: Ottokar II (Czech: Přemysl Otakar II.; c. 1233, in Městec Králové, in Bohemia – 26 August 1278, in Dürnkrut, in Lower Austria), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until his death in 1278. He also held the titles of Margrave of Moravia from 1247, Duke of Austria from 1251, and Duke of Styria from 1260, as well as Duke of Carinthia and landgrave of Carniola from 1269. With Ottokar's rule, the Přemyslids reached the peak of their power in the Holy Roman Empire. His expectations of the imperial crown, however, were never fulfilled.
  • John the Blind: John the Blind or John of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Jang; German: Johann; Czech: Jan; 10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346), was the count of Luxembourg from 1313 and king of Bohemia from 1310 and titular king of Poland. He is well known for having died while fighting in the Battle of Crécy at age 50, after having been blind for a decade. In Luxembourg he is considered a national hero. Comparatively, in the Czech Republic, Jan Lucemburský is often recognized for his role as the father of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, one of the more significant Czech kings and simultaneously one of the leading Holy Roman Emperors.
  • Emperor Karel IV: (14 May 1316 (Jul. calendar) / 22 May 1316 (Greg. calendar) – 29 November 1378), also known as Charles of Luxembourg, born Wenceslaus (Czech: Václav), was the first King of Bohemia to become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg from his father's side and the Czech House of Přemyslid from his mother's side; he emphasized the latter due to his lifelong affinity for the Czech side of his inheritance, and also because his direct ancestors in the Přemyslid line included two saints.
  • Jan Zizka: Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (English: John Zizka of Trocnov and the Chalice) (c. 1360 – 11 October 1424) was a Czech general – a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus and a Radical Hussite who led the Taborites. Žižka was a successful military leader and is now a Czech national hero. He was nicknamed "One-eyed Žižka", having lost one and then both eyes in battle. Jan Žižka led Hussite forces against three crusades and never a lost single battle despite being completely blind in his last stages of life.
  • Jan Hus: Jan Hus (/hʊs/; Czech: [ˈjan ˈɦus] ; c. 1372 – 6 July 1415), sometimes anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, and referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss, was a Czech theologian and philosopher who became a Church reformer and the inspiration of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the second Church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination and, over a century later, on Martin Luther. Hus was a master, dean, and rector at the Charles University in Prague.
  • Emperor Sigismund: Sigismund of Bohemia (15 February 1368 – 9 December 1437), also known as Sigismund of Luxembourg, was prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, king of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, king of Germany from 1411, king of Bohemia from 1419, king of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 until 1437, and the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
  • Ladislaus Postumus: (22 February 1440 – 23 November 1457) was Duke of Austria and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg with Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert had bequeathed all his realms to his future son on his deathbed, but only the estates of Austria accepted his last will. Fearing an Ottoman invasion, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates offered the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland. The Hussite noblemen and towns of Bohemia did not acknowledge the hereditary right of Albert's descendants to the throne, but also did not elect a new king.

Trivia[]

  • The Bohemians' civilization icon is based on Bohemia's royal coat of arms. The similar symbol can still be found today at Czech Republic's coat of arms.
  • The user interface image displays the Prague astronomical clock, a medieval astronomical clock attached to the Old Town Hall in Prague.
  • The Bohemians are the only non-Mesoamerican civilization that does not have access to cavalry archers, as well as the only Eastern European civilization to not have access to Bloodlines or upgrade to their Light Cavalry.
    • This is probably done so for geographic reasons, as the mountainous region of Bohemia is ill-suited to practice mounted archery.
  • The Bohemians are one of the three civilizations that have access to a generic unit earlier than other civilizations (the others being Burgundians and Cumans). In the case of the Bohemians, they have access to the Hand Cannoneer an age earlier.
  • Despite Bohemians being located in Central Europe and having absorbed a lot of Germanic culture from the Holy Roman Empire, their building set is Eastern European.
    • This probably is due to the Imperial Age Eastern European architecture, resembling the Czech gothic buildings a lot, and thus matching their Castle and the Wonder. Also the developers likely wanted to differentiate the Bohemians from the Teutons in their campaign.
  • Both the Bohemian unique units are Siege units, the only such civilization with more than one unique unit. Both of them are also Gunpowder units.
  • Before the Bohemians had their own civilization, they were represented by Teutons in Holy Roman Emperor and The Promise.
  • The Bohemians are very similar to the Spanish as both have the same strengths. Both also have unique gunpowder units, as well as bonuses affecting their gunpowder units. Also, both get unique technologies for their Monks and have team bonuses for their trade. The biggest difference is that the Bohemians' tech tree is much more limited.
    • The Bohemians are also similar to the Turks, as both are gunpowder-focused civilizations that struggle in open maps due to the lack of strong early-game economic and military bonuses, while they excel in closed maps such as Arena and Black Forest, due to the map's ability for them to defend themselves and boom safely. Both civilizations are also ideal for "fast Imperial Age" strategies as well, and have civilization bonuses that help them with this strategy. The biggest difference is the Turks have better cavalry while the Bohemians have better trash war potential.

History[]

Bohemia’s rich history is one of both rapid change and tenacious resilience. Early-imperial Roman authors coined the region’s name after the local Boii, an ancient Celtic enemy of Rome. By the time that the Roman Empire began to fall into decay, Germanic-speaking confederations such as the Lombards and the Alemanni inhabited the region. As the Migration Period (4th-6th centuries AD) brought vast changes to Europe and its inhabitants, the Germanic groups moved on, leaving Bohemia open for a new wave of migrants.
Aoe2-history-bohemians.png

These new arrivals were speakers of the West Slavic language-branch, the ancestors of the region’s modern inhabitants. Although these groups occasionally coalesced into small pseudo-states, such as that of Samo in the early 7th century, these were the exception rather than the rule. The most prevalent factors in this delayed process of state-building were probably issues posed by geographical features, continued migrations, and the threat posed by the Avar Khaganate, a confederation of predatory nomadic horsemen dwelling to the east in Pannonia.

As larger settlements developed and trade increased, Bohemia’s inhabitants interacted more frequently with their Frankish neighbors to the west. The resulting eastward spread of Christianity initially caused friction due to the pagan beliefs of many of the Slavic inhabitants of Bohemia, but as the new creed spread, a tenuous connection between the regions formed. This development soon bore fruit as, in the late 8th century, an alliance of Franks and Slavs thrust east and inflicted a catastrophic defeat on the Avars, driving them from the region.

The resulting power vacuum was soon filled by the rising empire of Great Moravia. Striving for legitimacy, its early rulers opened relations with the Byzantine Empire, inviting Orthodox missionaries into their lands. This brief trend was reversed under Svatopluk I (c. 840-894), who ascended to power by allying himself with the Franks and deposing his uncle Rastislav. A shrewd politician and able commander, Svatopluk used his reign to expand his empire from Moravia and Bohemia into Poland and Pannonia, eventually dying as he lived–in war.

Weakened by the squabbling of his successors and vulnerable to rebellion and invasion, Great Moravia did not long survive Svatopluk’s death. Around the turn of the 10th century, the Magyars irrupted into Pannonia and Moravia, bringing the fragile state to its knees. Desperate to protect themselves, the Premyslids, dukes of a new Christian dynasty ruling the region around Prague, placed themselves under the protection of their German neighbors to the west. This was the first in a series of policy decisions that would see Bohemia incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire.

Empowered by their western ally, the Premyslids undertook a series of campaigns to conquer Bohemia and build a new state. This ambition was set in rapid motion when Duke Boleslav I (c. 908-972) acquired Moravia after helping Otto the Great crush the Magyars at the Lechfeld in 955. For three centuries, the Premyslids ruled Bohemia, amassing vast amounts of wealth from bustling trade routes, bountiful mineral deposits that supported a strong currency, and successful warfare. Before long, the duchy grew to such strength that these magnates were gradually elevated to the status of kings.

One especially ambitious king, Ottokar II (1233-1278), known as “the Iron and Golden King” for his military might and wealth, aspired to become Holy Roman Emperor. Seeing opportunity in the instability created by the recent Mongol invasions of Central and Eastern Europe, he launched campaigns in all directions, expanding his domain to the shores of the Adriatic Sea and even crusading against the pagan Baltic Prussians. Fearing his growing power, Ottokar’s peers elected Rudolf of Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor instead and challenged the Bohemian behemoth. In a vicious showdown at the Marchfeld in 1278, Ottokar was defeated and slain.

After the fall of the Premyslid dynasty in 1306, rulership of Bohemia passed to the illustrious House of Luxembourg. Although able kings who propelled Bohemia into a brief golden age, their tenure on the throne is best known for being plagued by religious warfare. In 1415, the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund ordered the execution of Jan Hus, a university scholar preaching religious reforms, sparking the Hussite Wars, a precursor to the Protestant Reformation. Against all odds, the Hussites prevailed against the Imperial forces and won religious freedom due to the tactical brilliance of ingenious leaders such as Jan Zizka and Prokop the Great, who used gunpowder weaponry, geography, and fortified wagons equipped with artillery to deadly effect. The Hussite movement began another Bohemian thrust towards autonomy, but the region gradually fell under the sphere of influence of its Polish, Hungarian, and Austrian neighbors. Following the death of Louis II in battle against the Ottoman Turks at Mohacs in 1526, Bohemia passed into the dominion of the Habsburgs, who would rule it for nearly four more centuries.
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Gallery[]

References and notes[]

  1. Unlike the elevation bonus where the decimal part is stored for each attack, the resulted bonus damage from the Bohemian bonus is rounded for every armor class (rounded up if 0.5) to the nearest integer and remembered as such for every attack. This is probably due to the fact that the Bohemian bonus, alongside with the Burgundian bonus damage for gunpowder units, is applied as a +25% bonus to the unit's base attack stats which are most likely stored as integers. The bonus is also applied before the bonus damage armor is taken into account, making Bohemian Spearman-line significantly stronger against Cataphracts. Both the elevation bonus and the Sicilian bonus damage resistance are applied after the rounded Bohemian bonus damage and both preserve decimal figures.
    E.g. 1: Bohemian Pikeman vs. Camel armor class deals ROUND(18 * 1.25) = 23 bonus damage every hit.
    E.g. 2: Bohemian Halberdier vs Elite Battle Elephant deals ROUND(32 * 1.25) = 40 {anti-cavalry} + ROUND(28 * 1.25) = 35 {anti-elephant} = 75 bonus damage every hit.
    E.g. 3: Bohemian Spearman-line deals generic 1 bonus damage to buildings and Eagles despite having a +25% bonus applied (Spearman-line has +1 bonus damage against both armor classes).
    E.g. 4: This way of rounding has major implication in Pikemen vs Knights fights where, if Bloodlines is researched and the Blacksmith upgrades are matched (e.g., Iron Casting is canceled out with Chain Barding Armor), Pikemen kill full HP Knights in 4 hits instead of 5: (4 – 2) = 2 {melee} + ROUND(22 * 1.25) = 28 {anti-cavalary dmg} = 30 dmg per hit. If there were no rounding occurring, Pikemen would need an attack upgrade advantage to gain a 4-hits-to-kill ability.
    E. g. 5: Fully upgraded Bohemian Halberdier vs fully upgraded Elite Cataphract: (10 – 5) = 5 {melee} + (ROUND(32 * 1.25) – 16) = 24 {anti-cavalry} = 29 damage (vs 21 damage for a generic Halberdier which is a +38% damage bonus).
    E.g. 6: Bohemian Spearman vs Sicilian Scout (no upgrades): (3 – 0) = 3 {melee} + ((ROUND(15 * 1.25) = 19) * 0.5) = 9.5 {anti-cavalry} = 12.5 damage inflicted in 13–12–13–12… increments.
  2. Do not require Mining Camps constructed.
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